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    Martin, Perpet, and the History of the City of Tours
    The Saint Martin basilicas erected in Tours
    The impetus  communicated  by  the bishop  Perpet
    Martin and the Tourangeaux
    Martinus   ad  perpetuum

    Encyclo Martin & Tours


    1. Outside the legendary Gatian, Lidoire first bishop of Tours
    2. Martin, the soldier who shares his coat
    3. From the obedient soldier to the one who defies the emperor Julian
    4. Martin and Hilary of Poitiers: Ligugé and intolerance against Arianism
    5. From His Election to His Glorification, the Humble Martin and the Townspeople of Tours
    6. At Marmoutier, Sulpice Severus interviews Martin and it's a bestseller
    7. Martin and Ambrose of Milan: restraint in the face of Priscillian heresy
    8. From Amboise to Candes, the Evangelist Martin and the Rural People of Touraine
    9. Martin the Bagaudean apostle ransacking the Gallic heritage
    10. The religious echo of Martinian miracles
    11. Martin in all artistic forms
    12. Illustrations of episodes in the life of the sanctified Martin
    13. Edifications to the glory of Martin sanctified
    14. History snippets, legends, relics, demons, mystifications...
    15. Sixteen centuries of Martin books and a powerful contemporary revival

    16. Brice, Martin's contested successor, is replaced by Armence
    17. Armence and the Tourangeaux raise the first Saint Martin basilica
    18. Huns in the Basilica of Armence and the miracles told by Perpet
    19. From the family of Paule and Eustochia, Eustoche and Perpet, aristocratic bishops

    20. The funding, decorations, and poems of Perpet's basilica
    21. The Visigoths and seven other bishops from the Gallic aristocracy
    22. The glorious passage of Clovis to Tours and the basilica
    23. Queen Clotilde settles in Tours, near the basilica
    24. Radegonde and Brunehaut, two "Martinian" queens, two fates
    25. Gregoire of Tours, the cult of Martin and his virtus
    26. From the Merovingians to the Carolingians, from cloaks to chapels
    27. Alcuin and Vivien abbots of Saint-Martin, an innovative scriptorium
    28. Luitgarde and Judith, empresses buried in the basilica
    29. Viking, the ramparts of Châteauneuf and Foulques Nerra

    30. From Martin's cloak to the Capetians, from Romanesque to Gothic
    31. Ecclesiastical Remnants and the New Prosperity of Châteauneuf
    32. From the English occupation of the Plantagenets to the reconquest of Philippe-Auguste
    33. At Châteauneuf, the bourgeois under the thumb of the basilica's clergy
    34. The Hundred Years' War, Charles VI the Mad and Joan of Arc in Tours
    35. Louis XI, the citizen king of Tours, and his good city
    36. Tours capital of pre-Renaissance arts before the fatal Francis I
    37. The wealth of the abbeys of Tours Saint Martin and Marmoutier
    38. The neighboring and satellite abbeys of Cormery, Beaumont, St Cosme, St Julien
    39. The hundred days of the Huguenots, from pillage to massacre
    40. Tours, first capital of Henry IV, clings to modest prosperity
    41. Rise and then weakening of the cult of Martin
    42. Fatal blows of the sans-culottes, temporary end of the basilica and the cult

    43. The new axis of urban structuring, the absence of a basilica
    44. The extension of the city to the south, the passage of the Prussians
    45. The 19th-century Martinian revival and the long polemic
    46. Jules Quicherat and Casimir Chevalier link Perpet to Laloux
    47. Victor Laloux's new basilica
    48. XXth century, embalmed Martin passes in the background
    49. From the patriotism of World War I to the desolation of World War II
    50. XXIst century and perpetuity, repeated tribute to Martin

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  1. Outside the legendary Gatian, Lidoire first bishop of Tours

    Introduction: 17 centuries of Martinian history. Martin of Tours, born Martinus in 316 in Hungary, then Pannonia, considered a saint during his lifetime, died in 397 at Candes in Touraine, held the office of bishop of Tours from 371, succeeding Lidoire who turns out to be the first bishop of that diocese, as will be explained in this first chapter. 17 centuries have passed since then and the mark left by this man remains prevalent, whether in the city of Tours, in the province of Touraine / Loire Valley, in the country of Gaul which became France / Germany, in Europe and even beyond. After having retraced what is known about his life and outlined the cult he generated, we will follow these 17 centuries from a Tours perspective, with as a guiding thread the four successive basilicas that the people of Tours dedicated to him, their evolution, that of the cult, and that of the life of a city that had chosen him and that he served. All this leads to a kind of encyclopedia of Martin of Tours, an illustrated portal leading to books in pdf or in paper and to sites allowing to extend the present study.

    Gatian was not the first bishop of Tours. For centuries, the first bishops of Tours were those cited by Gregory of Tours (19th bishop of Tours, from 573 to 594). In December 1980, a thesis (cf. hereafter) by Luce Pietri, published in 1983 under the title "Tours from the Fourth to the Sixth Centuries" re-established facts closer to the documents of the Fifth Century, denouncing what appears to be legendary and contrary to recognized historical facts. Thus, it appears very likely that Gatian did not exist, or did not exercise as a bishop (pages 31-33). Luce Pietri is even categorical : "Whatever its provenance, the name of Catianus [Gatian]cannot in any case be maintained at the head of the episcopal list of Tours". The Cathedral of Tours would therefore be dedicated to a character imagined by Gregory of Tours or invented by someone he trusted, possibly inspired by a real character. In particular, he could be the first Christian to arrive in Tours, but without playing the role of a bishop or even a priest with any audience. Everything that is said about Gatian, for example on this page of the Christian Reflection site, appears historically false.

    Martin instrumentalized in the invention of Gatien. How far can one go in the manipulation of saints ? This painting from the Chapel of Saint Michael, Ursuline Convent, Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption in Tours, 17th century, is titled "Saint Martin, by revelation, invented the body of Saint Gatien" (link). At right, one of the oldest depictions of Gatian, from the 12th century.

    The long list of Touraine prelates
    Here is an old Latin writing, the "Sancta et Metropolitana Ecclesia Turonensis" by Jean Maan, dated 1667. The author had access to archival documents, many of which were lost during the Revolution or the burning of the Tours library in 1940. It presents fourteen centuries of the life of the bishops of Tours, beginning with several (very large) pages on Gatien. A second part deals with the history of the councils and synods held in the ecclesiastical province. This massive work (from which these two photos are taken, the second showing the list of bishops of Tours according to Gregory) is available at the Denis Antique Bookstore in Tours (in October 2019 + catalog with books on Touraine). A translation by Paul Letort was published, in very limited print, in 1997 (ed. du Python).
    From bishops to archbishops. Beginning in 1802 the archbishops succeeded the 120 bishops. In 2020, the 138th (or 139th counting the constitutional bishop Pierre Suzor, from 1791 to 1794) is Vincent Jordy. The full listing is on this list from Wikipedia, to which the correction below should be made.

    Luce Pietri also writes that Brice cared very little for the cult of his predecessor Martin and was for a time exiled and replaced mainly by Armentius / Armence, before returning mellowed out after the latter's death (see below the chapter on Armence). On these bases, here are the two lists of the first bishops of the Martinian capital, with links to Wikipedia (which is still based in 2020, on the list of Gregory) and dates of exercise of the office  :

    The first bishops of Tours
    According to Gregory of Tours  According to Luce Pietri
    Gatian / Catianus (251-304)1Lidory / Litorius (338-371)
    Lidory (341-371)2Martin / Martinus (371-397)
    Martin (371-397)3Brice / Brictius (397-430, 436-442)
    Brice (397-442)4Armentius / Armentius (430-436)
    Eustochius (442-459)5Eustochius / Eustochius (442-459)
    Perpet (459-489)6Perpet / Perpetuus (459-489)
    • Many dates are unclear, especially for Brice and Armence
    • Except for Armence, all of these bishops are canonized
    • Armence had Justinian / Justinianus as his predecessor, who held office only briefly
    • Luce Pietri did not perform a numbering, the one attributed to him here is also intended to be quickly linked to Gregory's numbering, hence the disregard of Justinian
    • In his first presentation, Gregory takes into account Justinian and Armentius
    • Armentius is translated as Armence, not Armand / Armantius
    • Two years after his thesis, in 1982, Luce Pietri published a study of 70 pages titled "The succession of the first Touraine bishops : essay on the chronology of Gregory of Tours". One may refer to it to understand the two numberings used by Gregory
    • + extracted from this study, a table of Gregory's two lists, with this data for the Brice  period:

    Lidoire, the first bishop of Tours. 17 years after his thesis, in the 1997 colloquium in Tours on Martin, Luce Pietri returns to the beginnings of the bishopric of Tours, summarizing elements of his study  "The Church of Tours had been founded, not as Gregory would later claim, in the glorious times of the persecutions, but recently in the favor of the Peace of the Church, around 337/338. Its first bishop, Litorius [Lidory], Martin's predecessor, had gathered a small flock composed mainly of townspeople. With the intention of this last, it had raised, in the city surrounded by the walls, its ecclesia, the modest cathedral church where it gathered each Sunday and at the time of the great annual festivals the Christian people  it had also in the western suburbium arranged, inside a house yielded by a senator, a funerary basilica intended to shelter its last rest. But he had not tried to evangelize the countryside of his diocese whose extent coincided roughly with that of the current department of Indre et Loire."

    The non-existence of Gatien now garners wide assent among historians, as shown by this note by Henri Galinié in the book Ta&m 2007 (page 285).

    Lidoire, the first bishop of Tours. At left, fresco by Louis de Bodin de Galembert, before restoration [oratory of the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Tours, 1872, "The Legend of Saint Martin in the 19th Century" 1997]. In the center, stained glass window from Notre Dame la Riche church in Tours (link) On the right, statue of the church Notre Dame des Essards in Touraine (link). + vitrail by Lux Fournier 1912 in the church of St. Martin de Tauxigny, between Tours and Loches (link).

    Sanctus Lidorius under the dome of the present-day Basilica of Saint Martin in Tours, fresco by Pierre Fritel.

    The Christianization of Touraine did not begin until the fourth century. In his thesis, Luce Pietri evoked the presence of the first Christians in Tours : "That there were a few Tourangeaux converted to Christianity before the year 337/338 which dates, according to Gregory, the beginning of the reign of Litorius, this is highly probable in this period of diffusion of the new faith and even certain, if we are to believe the author of the Historia Francorum, who affirms that the future bishop was one of them. It does not follow, however, that this group of faithful, still small in number, constituted an organized and independent Church in the first decades of the fourth century. Considering what we know about the history of Christianity in the whole of western Gaul, we have every reason, in fact, to accept the date of 337/338 as that of the creation of the bishopric of Tours."

    Luce Pietri continues : "In these regions, before the coming of Martin, very few people had heard of Christ, as the bishop Eufronius of Tours and six of his colleagues, holders of neighboring sees, remarked in a letter addressed between 567 and 573 to Queen Radegonde. As for the episcopal hierarchy, it was only late and very slowly that it was organized. Thus, within the framework of the province of Lyonnaise Seconde such as the reform of Diocletian had defined it, only Rouen, an important city which then became the administrative metropolis of the new province, is surely endowed with an episcopal seat before 313; in Angers and in Nantes, both located on the Loire in a position similar to that of Tours, as well as in Le Mans, the presence of a bishop is not historically attested before the middle of the 4th century. Everywhere else it is necessary to wait until the fifth century, or even the following century, for the appearance of an episcopal seat."

    Luce Pietri's dissertation, with illustrious historians as chair (Jacques Fontaine) and rapporteur (André Chastagnol) endorsing her work, is a remarkable critical study. It is hardly understandable that such a work has been recognized only in a small circle of scholars and that its conclusions have not changed the view we have of this sequence of events. Sulpice Severus and Gregory of Tours were for Martin panegyrists more than historians. Their narratives must be considered according to a "reasoned and tempered criticism," as Luce Petri wrote and as Jacques Fontaine did in his 1969 annotated translation of Sulpice Severus and in a article from 2005 on the place of the Vita Martini in literature.

    Over the centuries a phantom usurper bishop. How can we believe in the existence of Gatian at a time that was not yet Christian, when his first appearance dates back three centuries later in the writings of Gregory ? And he only began to be celebrated in 1243. Charles Lelong, in an article titled "Saint Gatien or Saint Maurice" [SAT 1995] considers that there has been "usurpation" : the cathedral should be called Saint Maurice as it was before 1310 and as, in the same place, the church of Martin's time. Worse, told by Lelong, a tale about the life of Gatien was peddled and approved by the Church from the thirteenth to the eighteenth century. Even now it is led to believe that Gatien was "buried in front of the church of Notre Dame la Riche, in a crypt where a spring (reputedly miraculous)", which is glorified by "a monument with his statue", rehabilitated in 2014 ["Secret Tours", Hervé Cannet 2015] + photo. One may also consult, recounted by Bernard Chevalier at a 2011 colloquium, a vicious debate from the 1860s, with Casimir Chevalier, on two different origins of Gatien, ultimately as false as each other. And to show his primacy over Martin, Gatien is supposed to have died in a cave of Marmoutier which bears his name...

    Martin's church was the church of Saint Maurice, located on the site of the current Saint Gatien Cathedral. "The cathedral was built on the site of the building which in the fourth century was the ecclesia prima, that is, the church of the bishop of Tours, thus the church of Saint Martin[built by Lidoire around 340, rebuilt in 573]. This first church bore the name of Saint Maurice then later [in the fourteenth century] the canons of the cathedral in opposition to those of the basilica gave him the name of Gatien, first on the episcopal see of Tours. The current Gothic cathedral replaces the Romanesque building built over the first church. The current cathedral has many objects and decorations related to St. Martin. [...]In the chapel of St. Lidoire, 12th-century stained glass windows from the former Basilica of St. Martin (scenes from the lives of St. John, St. Andrew, and St. James)." [excerpt from the page of the cathedral on the site saint-martindetours]. Dimensions of the cathedral : 100 meters long, 28 m wide, 46 m for the transept, height of the vaults 29 m, 68 and 69 m for the towers (to be compared, further on, with the dimensions of the abbey church of Marmoutier, here, and the successive Saint Martin's Basilicas, here).

    An analysis of the construction of Tours Cathedral in the album Guignolet 1984 + the eight plates : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8.

    The Saint Gatien Cathedral of Tours. 1) in the 19th century + engraving 1603 [BmT] + painting by William Turner 1826 + engraving 1841 Clarey-Martineau + engraving 1844 ["Tours, guide to the foreigner"] + four engravings LTh&m 1855 : 1 2 3 4 + engraving 1874 on a map of Tours. 2) in 2020 + photo 2019 at night. 3) The nave. 4) A fresco on the sharing of the mantle, with faded colors (photo) here enhanced (page flickr by Philippe_28]. This building is of a Gothic classicism that was admired by Viollet Leduc ["La cathédrale de Tours", Claude Andrault-Schmitt, Geste Editions 2010]. + postcard 1975 aerial view. + site parish (St Maurice parish, not St Gatien...). The cathedral is also home to a famous painting by Jean-Victor Schnetz that will be featured hereafter.

    Martin honored in Tours Cathedral with three large dedicated bays, numbered 204, 4 and 8. 1) The large bay, #204, dated about 1260 (reading from bottom to top) [drawing by Costigliole, "La cathédrale de Tours", Claude Andrault-Schmitt, Geste Editions 2010] + another repeat in Lecoy 1881 + photo + excerpt + photo of the other two bays complementing each other (#4 and #8 circa 1270-1290) dedicated to Martin + excerpt bay 8. + two links with chronological detail of all scenes : 1 (bay 4) 2 (bay 8). 2) The sharing of the cloak (bay #204). 3) Martin delivers a possessed man, the devil coming out of his mouth (the face has been blackened...) (bay #8). 4) "The Cathedral Illuminations" in summer 2018 with Martin superimposed (or else the ghost of Gatien ?) + three other Martin scenes from this show : 1 2 3 + other scene. This page will showcase some of the other stained glass windows in these bays. In 2013, on the theme of St. Martin, stained glass windows of a complexity that is difficult to read, even with explanations, were added, made by Gérard Collin-Thiébaut and Pierre-Alain Parot, with this notice (link).

    Are two of the cathedral's three stained glass windows on the life of Martin from the Basilica of Saint Martin ? Above in illustrations, three stained glass windows tracing the life of Martin are shown. The one numbered 204 is the oldest, about 1260. Given by the abbey of Cormery, it was made "in situ", that is, on site, for this building. It presents 18 scenes. The other two, numbered 4 and 8, are slightly later, between 1270 and 1290, say 1280. Each one contains 10 scenes, the second series extending the first, thus 20 scenes. Taking into account the duplicates, the thirty-eight medallions of these three windows present 24 different scenes of the life and death of the saint. Here we find the scenes from the Martin Bay in the Cathedral of Saint Etienne in Bourges, dated about 1215 (20 scenes, photo flickr Anne L. + link) and those of the great bay of Chartres, created between 1215 and 1275 (40 scenes, presentation below). For Jacques Verriere, in his book Verriere 2018 : "The twin glass roofs are not "in situ." Are they from other parts of the cathedral ? Or, like the stained glass window of St. Julian and St. Ferréol that they frame, from another church ? It is not excluded that they could have been transferred from the old basilica of Saint Martin when it was dismantled at the end of the Directoire or under the Consulate, or even a little before. This hypothesis would be perfectly consistent with the chronology, since specialists date the two glass windows to at least the 1270s, perhaps to one of the following two decades. This corresponds well to the last period of major works that affected the basilica at the end of the 13th century." Some relics had been saved during the revolution by the citizen Lhommais (see hereafter) and were then recovered by the cathedral. The tomb of the children of Charles VIII (hereafter) was recovered in the same way, why not these two bays #4 and #8 ? It is plausible and even probable. There are however other hypotheses, including a provenance of the nearby church St Julien

    Martin of Tours and Maurice of Agaune, two related military saints. Who was this Maurice that Martin held in such high regard ? He died a martyr along with the legionaries of his Theban Legion, in the early fourth century for refusing to quell a Christian Bagua revolt (illustrated story, link). Maurice quickly gained great fame, so it is likely that Martin passed through Agaune (north of the Alps, the site of the massacre) on his wanderings. What about the story about the blood of the martyr, collected by Martin? A tall tale ? However, as explained in this study from 2014 by Olivier Roduit, a vial was found in Candes in 1873 with an inscription indicating that it contained blood from Maurice... Albert Lecoy de la Marche [Lecoy 1881] believes that Martin, a bishop, may have passed through Agaune and that, through his fame, he may have brought back vials of the blood of the Theban martyrs that contemporaries of the massacre had kept.

    Martin and Maurice. At left, 15th century tapestry "Saint Martin spouting the blood of Saint Maurice at Agaune" housed in the Treasury of the Saint Maurice Cathedral of Angers [Lecoy 1881]. Then, in the same building, stained glass window "Miracle of the blood of Maurice" from the 13th century. + two other representations of the same scene in "The Life and Miracles of Bishop Saint Martin" : 1 version 1516 [BmT, commentary by Claude Andrault-Schmitt, "La cathédrale de Tours", Geste Editions 2010]. 2 version 1496 [BnF] + vitrail 1900 [Edouard Didron, church of Saint Martin le Hébert, in Normandy]. Next stained glass window from the Lobin workshop in the Church of Notre-Dame de la Légion d'Honneur in Longué (Anjou) with the two saints (Martin on the right) [illustrations Semur 2015]. On the right is a stained glass window from the Church of St. Nicholas in the former Abbey of St. Maurice in Blasimon. On this tableau by Hans Holbein the Younger 1522, Martin is paired with another Theban legionary, Bear / Ursus of Solothurn (link). + three pages from Nhuan DoDuc's website featuring stained glass windows by Maurice : 1 2 3. + three stained-glass windows from Tours Cathedral illustrating the martyrdom of Maurice and his fellow legions [Catalog 2016]. There is still a "vase of St. Martin" in St. Maurice, Switzerland, the story of which is told on this page of the "Martinian Letter" 2005-3 (with a photo of this vase and the one in Candes).
    ... And George... In England, Martin is more associated with George / George of Lydda, who slayed a dragon, as in these six stained glass windows : 1 by Margaret Aldrich Rope 1934, Church of Hereford (+ enlarged frame) [flickr Glass Angel] 2 by Charles Kempe 1903, Church of Edgebaston in Birmingham [flickr Peter Moore] 3 church in Tilney All Saints [flickr Steve Day] 4 church in Guislborough in England [flickr guilsborough 37] 5 church in Earlswood, flickr Aidan McRTae Thomson] 6 church in Westbourne where the cathedral of Tours is in the background of Martin [flickr Alwyn Ladell]. + double sculpture on the main portal of the church of the Translation of St. Martin in La Chapelle sur Loire, unless it is there Michel the archangel, the one at Mont Saint Michel, who also slayed a dragon.

    Historians' caution, analysis and hindsight. We will now engage in the study of Martin's life. What we have just analyzed about the Gatian fiction leads us to do so with caution. Caution will be required, for example, in rejecting the words of Régine Pernoud (page 72 of her 1996 book "Martin of Tours, Encounter") asserting that "For Martin, the cult of the martyrs demanded more than a mere reputation. One can only salute in him this concern for truth. [...]Visibly Martin had a taste for and a sense of history." There is reason to doubt it, with his miracles and demons, with also some of the fariboles of his continuators like Perpet and Gregory of Tours. Luce Pietri and most contemporary historians have been able to overcome both the overly enlightened approach of some, such as Régine Pernoud, and the overly incredulous approach of others, such as Ernest-Charles Babut, whom we will discuss further on. It is this path that we will follow.

    Search Engines and Translations In the digital age, search engines provide us with masses of information about such a well-known figure. Still, it is necessary to use relevant search criteria (without forgetting to use quotation marks). "Saint Martin" is insufficient because of the patronymics, localities and churches bearing this title. "Martin de Tours" is better but must be accompanied by other criteria. To go beyond the French language pages alone, translations should be used. The Wikipedia page on Martin of Tours exists in 68 languages, which allows you to use the translations. In English  "Martin of Tours" (and "Saint Martin"), in Spanish "San Martin" (and "Martin of Tours"), in Italian "San Martino" and "Martino di Tours", in German "Martin von Tours", in Portuguese "Sao Martinho", "Martinho de Tours", in the Netherlands "Sint Maarten" and "Martinus van Tours", in Hungarian "Szent Marton", in Catalan "Sant Marti" and "Marti de Tours", in Polish "Marcin z Tours", in Latin "sanctus Martinus" and "Martinus Turonensis".... and the abbreviations "St Martin", "St Martinus"...

    Photo sites, especially flickr. Several sites feature databases of photos. Some, like alamy, akg, or pinterest, are very limited in access and not very recommendable. Both open and very extensive, the most interesting site is flickr. Here it has allowed the sharing of photos, often of very good quality (the flickr origin is indicated, followed by the user's name). Searches can be based on the associated search engine (for example this result for the criteria Martin, Tours and stained glass) or based on albums found in comments, such as this one "Traces of St. Martin of Tours or this one "San Martin caballero". One can combine, for example, the group "Traces of Saint Martin of Tours in Europe" with the criterion "vitrail" for this result. This expands the illustrations on this page...

  2. Martin, the soldier who shares his coat

    334, the sharing of the cloak: no horse and no red cloak! This is Martin's iconic, still world-famous scene of the sharing of the cloak, also known as Martin's Charity or Saint Martin's Charity or Amiens Charity. Martin was 18 years old when, in Amiens / Samarobriva, in 334, he shared his cloak with a miserable man. Almost all representations, and they are countless, show Martin on horseback, or next to a horse, with a red cloak. Now the very young recruit Martin could only be an infantryman and he wore a chlamydia, usually white and not the red cloak of an officer. Moreover, Sulpice Severus, his first biographer, is silent on these two points (Paulinus of Perigueux, Venantius Fortunat, Gregory of Tours too). His short text talks a bit about the attitude of his fellow soldiers, who seem to be of the same level without rank. Some laugh, which is very poorly illustrated, this image anonymous Flemish is an exception (link). The context does not appear to be exceptional, as Sulpice would have mentioned it as the scene was already so important. Martin was a cavalryman only later, according to Sulpice under Constantius II, who reigned from 353. Between the infantryman of Amiens in 334 and the cavalryman of Constantius around 354, about twenty years passed which we know nothing about. A little later, under Julian, he is considered an officer of the imperial guard. If he was a legionary (not all soldiers were...), it was at the beginning of his career.

    Faced with the "poor almost naked", the value of Martin's gesture does not depend on whether he is on foot or on horseback, nor on the color of his coat, white for a soldier or red for an officer. So why do we always use this symbolism of an officer dominating his interlocutor? Most historians agree, Jacques Fontaine, at the 1997 colloquium, calling the representation of Martin as a cavalryman an error. Olivier Guillot, in his book "Saint Martin apostle of the poor" (2008) : "It is very precisely around 1100 that we find the oldest figuration of the scene where Martin is on horseback, facing the poor. [...]The modification is not without some importance : it tends to make Martin a knight, a valiant. By this, one necessarily distorts the image of the soldier Martin such as the Vita represented, that of the young guard of the emperor kneaded of modesty and humility, inclined more to serve the slave who is attached to him than to be served by him. [... ]We tend to attenuate what, according to the Vita, made the characteristic of this saint, the concern that he had always had to be on the same level with the poor." Jacques Verrière, quoting Sulpice Severus, also marvels in a double-page spread illustrated with stained glass windows from Tours Cathedral [Verrière 2018]. Esther Dehoux in the Collective 2019 shows in a tableau that Martin does not really become a horseman until the 13th century (+ map of France of the first representations) and that this evolution from pedestrian to cavalier is also found in the representations of Maurice and George / Georges.

    "historically correct" illustrations. 1) At the abbey of Saint Benoît sur Loire, circa 1000 [flickr Odile Cognard, link]. 2) Late 11th century, Hilaire le Grand church, Poitiers [flickr Philippe 28, link]. 3) Image taken from the Arte TV movie (see box below).
    Minimalist expression. 4) On the right, stained glass by John Piper and Patrick Reyntiens 1974 in the church of Sandford St Martin in England [flickr Aidan McRae Thomson] that could diagram each of these three stained glass windows: 1 Church of St. Remi in Maisons-Alfort in the Ile de France [workshop Mauméjean] 2 church in Grayshott in England [flickr johnevigar] 3 church of Herzogenbuchsee in Switzerland [flickr Hurni Christoph]. This minimalist three-handed foreshortening can also be expressed on two faces, as in this image by American artist Julie Lonneman or on a coat cut in half like this symbol of the 1700th anniversary of Martin's birth (link). Conversely, the composition can be more complex, such as this stained-glass window made by Claude Barre, a master glass artist from Amiens, and by Alain Mongrenier, a painter in the church of Blérancourt, in the Aisne [LM 2006-1].
    The Arte TV movie from November 5, 2016 (here in Youtube video, 52 minutes) traces the life and worship of Saint Martin by focusing on historical reality. Martin is presented as a young infantryman during the sharing of the cloak, with this remark  "In this encounter the eyes meet at equal height, the beggar thus feels grown and invigorated". Andreas Pichler, author of this documentary, was able to portray Martinus without a red cloak, miter or crosier, in his simplicity as a hermit who became a bishop and remained a hermit (image).
    Martin Infantryman Twenty three illustrations without a horse : 1 12th, [Barcelona Museum of Art, provenance St. Martin's Church of Burg Madame, Guingueta d'Ix in Catalan, Maupoix 2018] 2 (Martin Schongauer, Budapest, ca. 1475, flickr Assaf Kintzer) 3 (late 15th century) 4 (late 15th) 5 [Ampleforth Abbey in Britain, flickr Lawrence OP] 6 [Fribourg Cathedral in Switzerland, Jösef Mehoffer 1896-1936), flickr Lawrence OP] 7 [Church of Gospel Oak in London, flickr trailerfullofpix] 8 [Edward Burne-Jones 1894, church in Hatfield in England, flickr Robin Croft] 9 [church in Grimsby in England, flickr Budby] 10 [1910, St. Martin's Church in Fivehead in England, flickr David Cronin] 11 [Cathedral of Baltimore in the US, flickr Lawrence OP] 12 [19th century illustration] 13 [John and Willis 1931, church of Earls Barton in England, flickr Rex Harris] 14 [church in Roye in the Somme, Jean-Hébert Stevens] 15 [church in Mitry-Mory in Ile de France] 16 [church of Saint Olave in London, England] 17 [Collegiate Church of Colmar, link] 18 [R. M. Driffield 1890, Nymet Tracey in Devon, England] 19 [1909, church in Bidborough in England, flickr johnevigar] 20 [St. Martin's Church in Milford Salisbury in England, flickr Alwyn Ladell] 21 [St Martin in the fields church in London, flickr Patrick] 22 [St. Paul's Church in Oakland in the US, flickr St. Paul's] 23 [14th century Italian, Master of the Rebel Angels, possibly Lipo Memmi disciple and brother-in-law of Simone Martini, Musée du Louvre, Wikipedia]
    Single-handed cutting. A lone soldier cutting his coat in half may be enough, although it may look like he is cutting a curtain. Here are nine examples, all in England : 1 church in the Kingsbury district of London [flickr Rex Harris 2 [James Powell and Sons 1945, church in Lexden, flickr david.robarts] 3 church in Privett [flickr johnevigar] 4 church in Lewes, flickr Charlie Verrall] 5 Blackburn Cathedral [John Hayward, flickr, Glass Angel] 6 church in Baslow [flickr Oxfordshire churches] 7 Pecs Cathedral in Hungary (link) 8 St. Stephen's Church in Montreal, Quebec [Nguyen DoDuc] 9 [Edward Burne-Jones 1880, Church of Dorchester, flickr Rex Harris].
    Like a detail... Sometimes the sharing of the coat can be just another detail, small on this tableau by Pietro Montanini [17th century, Museum of Art of Romania, flickr Michael Martin], tiny (look it up...) on this table by Pieter Snayers 1592 [MBAT, Catalog 2016, gros-plan]. A tableau from St. Martin's Church in Kophaza in Hungary shows elderly Martin, alone, riding a donkey in the background [LM 2017-2].
    Let's point to the special case of this miniature from the Hungtingfield psalter of Oxford in England circa 1220 where it is Bishop Martin, not the soldier, who shares his mantle [The Pierpont Morgan Library in New York (link].

    The initial narrative of Sulpice Severus: "One day, in the middle of a winter whose extraordinary rigors had caused many people to perish, Martin, having only his arms and his soldier's cloak and his soldier's cloak, met at the gate of Amiens a poor man who was almost naked. The man of God God, seeing this unfortunate man begging in vain for the charity of the passers-by who without pity, understood that it was for him that God had reserved it. But what could he do? But what could he do? He had only the cloak he was wearing, for he had given away all the he drew his sword, cut it in two, gave half of it to the poor and put on the rest. the rest. Some of the spectators laughed when they saw this shapeless and mutilated garment mutilated garment; others, more sensible, groaned deeply for not having done anything when they could have done more, and clothed this poor man without stripping themselves. without stripping themselves. The next night, Martin fell asleep and saw Jesus Christ clothed with half the cloak with which he had covered the nakedness of the poor man and he heard a voice commanding him to look carefully at the Lord and to recognize the garment he had given him. Then Jesus turned to the angels around him and said to them in a loud voice: "Martin, while still a catechumen catechumen has clothed me with this robe. When the Lord said that by the poor man, Martin had clothed him himself, and that, to confirm the to such a good deed, he deigned to show himself clothed in the garment the garment given to the poor man, he remembered what he had once said: "All that you have done for the least of the poor you have done to the least of the poor you have done to me.""

    The invention of militaristic images. Already in the thirteenth century, in the stained glass windows of cathedrals, it is as a horseman that Martin tears his cloak (which is not yet always red). The monk-bishop became a "military hero", for example on this illustration from a breviary of Tours in 1635 [Collective 2019]. This image is imposed and, in France, it takes an official look in the nineteenth century. The Arte TV movie echoes this by presenting the above picture on the left as a reference.
    This painting made by Jean-Victor Schnetz in 1824 is displayed in the Saint Martin Chapel of St Gatien Cathedral in Tours + three photos : 1 2 3 (reliquary) [Wikimedia] + analysis by Véronique Moreau, Catalog 2016. It may have been inspired by a tableau from 1737 by Louis Galloche [Los Angeles Museum] or by the tableau by Jean II Restout 1735 [church of Saint Hymer in Calvados]. Financed by the ministry for half, the city of Tours and the department for a quarter each, is in some ways the official French portrait of Martin and it has indeed become so by the number of variants created.
    The beggars with bundles. Some of these variations are easily recognizable by the presence of a wooden bundle. Thus these eight stained glass : 1 [Saint Martin des Champs, Paris] 2 [church of Mosnes in Touraine, Fournier workshop] (variant 1886 in Sorigny) 3 (church in Anjouin in Indre) 4 (church of Druye in Touraine) 5 [church of Berthenay in Touraine, stained glass by Amand Clément] 6 repeat of the previous one (Julien Fournier 1882, church of Hommes in Touraine, link) (the churches of Continvoir, Saint Nicolas de Bourgueil in Touraine, Mareuil sur Cher and Le Tranger in Indre also have a nearly similar stained glass window by the Fournier workshop). 7 [St Mathieu de Quimper church in Brittany] 8 [in Poland, link).
    On the right, Martin is even shown as the leader of a cavalry squad [engraving by Ange-Louis Janet]. + fresco 1630 [St. Martin's Chapel in Richelieu in Touraine, link] + eight stained glass windows of the same type : 1 [Saint Martin de Vez church in Oise, link] 2 [Guérithault de Poitiers workshop, church of Grand Pressigny in Touraine, Verrière 2018] 3 [Duclos du Mans workshop, church of Truyes in Touraine, link] 4 [undetermined origin, link] 5 [by René Houille, of Beauvais, 1929, Church of Saint Denys d'Estrées] 6 church in Valanjou in Anjou (link) 7 church in Metz, Lorraine [Maréchal's workshop and Champigneulle, Nguyen DoDuc]. 8 [St Martin de Chaumont le Bois church in Côte d'Or]. It's suggested more than shown in other scenes, like on this stained-glass window [ Charles Kempe 1868, church of Saundby in England, flickr Budby]. And on this panel from the church in Lyndhurst in England or on this bas-relief of undetermined origin, Trooper Martin is at the head of a troop of foot soldiers [flickr Sic Itur As Astra].
    In the 20th and 21st centuries, the scene becomes more intimate as on this vitrail by Veronica Whall 1930 in the church of Ledbury in England [flickr Glass Angel], this sculpture [Rottenburg am Neckar in Germany, flickr dierk schaefer], this drawing from 2018 (link) or this vitrail from St. Martin's Church in Orly. Martin even dismounts his mount, as in this tableau of the Saint Martin in the fields church in London [link], this ex-libris 1922 by "the Welsh lay Dominican David Jones" [flickr Lawrence OP], this basic-relief by Eric Gill (England, flickr Lawrence OP] or this one on a door of the St. Martin's Cathedral in Utrecht in the Netherlands [Theo van de Vathorst, flickr Jim Forest], this painting by Damien Lejeune 2011 for the St Esprit church in Amiens (link) or this one by Gionani Canova (link) And on these nine stained glass  windows: 1 Shrigley and Hunt 1921 [WW1 Memorial in Skipton England, flickr Lawrence OP] 2 [Saint Martin's Church in Amiens, link] 3 [church of Juigné sur Sarthe] 4 [chapel of Fort George in Scotland, flickr beechgarave] 5 [church in Acklam in England, flickr Bolckow] 6 [church of St Martin de Vernusse, in Auvergne, flickr Martine Sodaigui] 7 [Lawrence Lee 1962, Coventry Cathedral, in England, flickr Simon Knott] 8 [Krista Steiner-Jörg 1941, St. Severus Church in Boppard in England, flickr Hen-Magonza] 9 Paul Woodroffe 1935 [Church of Edith Weston in England, flickr Peter Jones]. In the opposite direction, and this is exceptional, the horse can become the star, as on this vitrail by Emma Blount 2015 in the church in Bladon in England or the vitrail in the church of St. Basle in Dombasle in Lorraine, as if he had invited his master to share the mantle.
    The classical scene from the 13th century could be this vitrail preserved at the Musée de Cluny, National du Moyen-âge, in Paris, from an abbey in Varennes-Jarcy in the Ile de France or from Gercy in Picardy [flickr Michaël Martin]. Quite similar, though further back in England, and a bit later around 1320, is this vitrail from the Oxford Cathedral [flickr Lawrence OP]. + Four classic 16th and 17th century illustrations of Lecoy 1881 : 1 [Liberale da Verona] 2 ["The Golden Legend", Nicolas Couteau] 3 ["The Painting of the Cross", François Mazot] 4 [Daniel van Papenbroeck]. + the scene in two comic strips by Maric - Frisano 1994: 1 2 (Martin is on horseback, with a white coat) + the Wikipedia page titled "The Charity of Saint Martin".
    Some scenes have surprising looks. For example, in this sculpture and this one, both in Mainz, Germany, one wonders if Martin should cut his coat into three [flickr hen-Magonza] (or into four on this fresco of the Marienkirche church in Oldendorf in Germany, flickr Oldendorf), on this sculpture in St. Martin's Square in Cochem in Germany, Martin and his horse trample on a poor miser [flickr Wayne Hopkins], on this fresco in Treviso in Italy, sharing is done to music [LM 2008-1] And on these five stained glass  windows: 1, Christ is positioned between Martin and the beggar [Arthur Schouler circa 1982, St. Martin's Church in Pierrevillers in Moselle, link] 2, the Virgin Mary stands before Martin and the beggar in the basilica of San Lorenzo in Milan [LM 2007-2] 3, the sharing is done downtown [St Martin de Linxe church in Landes] 4, the setting appears fluffy and theatrical [Hanbury Church in England, flickr jacquemart] 5 the poor man is dressed in a rich, tattered and patched garment [Sturminster Newton church in England, flickr johnevigar]. Also on these five paintings : 1 the donor bishop Gottfried Werner of Zimmern pulls the cape to his advantage [Messkirch Master circa 1540, church in Karlsruhe, Germany, flickr jeanlouis mezieres] 2 another bishop pulls even more of the wool over his eyes [Lucas Cranach the Elder, Wikipedia] 3 the two protagonists are naked [Giocomo Vittone, Tenno in Italy, flickr Luc&Ca] 4 Martin gives away his entire coat [19th century, school of Jacques-Louis David, Musée du service des Armées, flickr Michel & Carole Alcamo] 5 the scene takes place in the spring with a clothed beggar [church in Villebourg in Touraine, link].
    Sharing in the crowd. In contrast to the militaristic scenes, some artists have evacuated the military aspect by multiplying the beggars or by posing Martin in the middle of inhabitants. Here are three examples : 1 painting by the Dutchman Cornelis Droochsloot, 17th century 2 painting by Jan de Coninck 1630 [St Martin's Church in Courtrai in Belgium, flickr hroenlig]. (excerpt below) 3 painting by Jan Brueghel the Elder, circa 1600 [Nelahozeves Castle, Czech Republic, Lobkowicz Collections, link], excerpt below.
    Style Borrowing The coat split in version Mesopotamian [origin undetermined, flickr Logan Isaac], Egyptian [St. Martin's Church in Oosterend in the Netherlands, flickr Jan van den Berg], perse [undetermined origin, flickr Logan Isaac], Chinese shadow [St. Georg's Church in Tübingen in Germany, flickr eagle1effi], Polish ("polish folk") [undetermined origin, flickr Aloutka Kazawa], disco (link), heroic fantasy (link).
    The acrobatic cutting of a coat on horseback. It is not easy with a sword to cut a cloak into two roughly equal parts, especially when one is perched on a horse that is not standing still. A reconstruction would show that this is not plausible, which, by the way, shows that the real Martin was an infantryman. It's especially obvious with a galloping horse as in this sculpture from the church of St. Martin in Erice in Italy [flickr Anne L] or a horse rearing up like on this sculpture of a tympanum in the church of St. Martin in Bologna in Italy [flickr Jacqueline Poggi]. Leprosy can be magical as it cuts through fabric with ease, as in this fresco [20th century, Tommaso Della Volpe, Church of St. Martin of Croara in Italy, link]. And, again in this church in Bologna, this other sculpture can only lead to leaving the poor a meager portion of the coat, just a scarf [flickr Paolo Venturi] or this sculpture from Crouy sur Cosson in Orléans where Martin dislocates his vertebrae [1997 colloquium SAT].
    The proper method of cutting a coat in half. There is, however, a method of cutting while straddling. Admittedly it is not widely used, perhaps because it requires the help of the poor transi and requires time to think beforehand, but it appears to be effective. Here she is on a sculpture perched on a portico on the island of Palma in Mallorca, Spain [flickr Josep Pons i Busquet, link], on a vitrail from the church of Church Westcote in England [flickr Martin Beek], on a bas-relief of the church of St Martin de Bénesse-Maremne in the Landes [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal] and on a chart of Bicci di Lorenzo in the Propositura di Santa Croce, commune of Greve in Chianti near Florence, Italy [flickr Jindrich Shejbal]. This is only in a preliminary position on this tableau at the Galleria dell'Accademia in Florence, Italy [flickr Valery Hugotte]. And even on foot, the method is effective, as shown in a third sculpture of the church in Bologna [flickr Paolo Venturi].
    Or else... Taking the preparatory thinking a step further, we can find it simpler on this vitrail of the Saint Honoré d'Eylau church in the 16th arrondissement of Paris [Félix Gaudin 1901, flickr Patrick Berthou]. Finally, it is better to bias, lengthen the mantle with a long train as on this statue of the church of Boulay in Touraine [" Saint Martin de Tours, XVI Centenary" 1996] or on this statue modern resin (link). Even better and so simple : show the scene once the coat is cut ! For example on this image posted in the Church of St. Martin de Vitré in Brittany, 2019, flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal + zoom back.

    Throughout this page, we look back at the sharing of the mantle, particularly according to the eras : late medieval and classical times hereafter, in the nineteenth century hereafter, in the twentieth century hereafter and again hereafter.

    The abbey of Saint Martin aux Jumeaux in Amiens on the site of the mantle sharing. Built in 1073, with a church of Saint Martin du Bourg where Thomas Becket celebrated mass in 1165, its buildings were used as a court house after the Revolution. They proved unsuitable and were demolished in 1860 to make way for a brand new courthouse. On the left the abbey, in the center the superimposed plans of the abbey and the new courthouse. On the right is the sculpture by Justin-Chrysostome Sanson, 1880, on one of the walls, at the presumed spot where Martin shared his mantle. It is captioned by two plaques (photo). + link with additional information. Add image anachronistically of Martin in front of Amiens Cathedral (origin undetermined, link).

    Sharing the mantle is the Martinian stamp. As these few examples, reproductions of Lecoy 1881, illustrate, the shared cloak scene is one of the key factors in Martin's popularity throughout the centuries. It can only point to Martin as a signature, a stamp. 1) Pawn for a game of tables carved from a walrus tusk [12th century, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford]. 2) Painted earthenware plate [18th century]. 3) Cider broc [Abbé Guiot's collection, 1761].
    The seals. 4) Seal of Jacques d'Arfeuille, provost of Saint Martin de Rodera [15th century]. + three other seals presented in Lecoy 1881 : 1 priory of St. Martin des Champs in Paris, late 12th century 2 1233 Aubri, dean of St Martin de Tours 3 archbishops of Mainz 13th century + three seals featured in the book Maupoix 2018 : 1 1273 dean of Saint Martin de Tours 2 1278 dean of Saint Martin de Tours 3 1406 chamberlain of Saint Martin des Champs, Paris. + page of Saint Martin seals in Europe [LM 2006-3].
    Miscellaneous items in addition to the above. Here are eleven : 1 fer to hosties, to get a better sense of Martin's charity 2 gravestone : [15th century, St. Martin's Basilica in Liege, link] 3 repository in Chinon, where Martin would have rested (link) 4 late 18th-century snuffbox. 5 cardinal's crosier [Bishop Meignan, Tours, 19th century, "Saint Martin de Tours, XVI Centenary" 1996] 6 abbot's staff 7 bellows top 8 embroidered chaplain 9 marble stoup from the basilica of St. Martin of Martina Franca [Maupoix 2018] 10 flag 11 camembert box [flickr Michael Studt]. And two sundials (link) : 1 2. A dial (link) and a other from the Basilica of Tours or a candle. From the incense. A cense (link). + A article from La NR 2016 on Saint Martin's marketing.
    This stamp can be unobtrusive, a detail to recognize Martin, as on this tableau by Jean-Hubert Tahan [1838, St. Martin's Church of Fressines], link]. Or in the background, as on a image from the 19th century by Louis-Joseph Hallez. In July 2020, on the search engine "startpage", the search "Martin of Tours" delivers 19 out of 20 images with the mantle split (screen shot) (17/20 for "Martin of Tours").

    The earliest known illustration of the shared cloak scene. Bruno Judic : "In the sixth century, Boniface, an Anglo-Saxon missionary, founded the abbey of Fulda, in Hesse. At the end of that same century, this abbey had close ties with Tours. The young Raban [Raban Maur], a monk from Fulda, came to study in Tours under Alcuin. The images of the Tours basilica were known in Fulda and certainly inspired the decoration of the sacramentary of Fulda. Some manuscripts of this sacramentary, made at the end of the tenth century, bear the first known representation today of the Charity of Amiens undoubtedly from the very decoration of the Touraine basilica. This image is exceptional: on the left side, in front of the city gate, Martin, on foot, without a horse, is sharing his cloak with the beggar opposite, but on the right side, Martin is shown asleep on a bed, and above, in the center of the image, Christ, whom Martin is contemplating in his nocturnal vision, is wearing the half cloak given to the beggar. The image here is closely linked to the text of Sulpice Severus itself and manifests the profoundly Christ-like significance of the famous scene. It is again this inspiration that can be found on a capital of Saint-Benoît sur Loire around the year one thousand [sculpture already presented at the beginning of this chapter]".

    Reproductions of a scene from the Basilica of Perpet ! Already, in 1956, at the conclusion of a article titled "The Miracles of Saint-Martin. [Research on the wall paintings of Tours in the 5th and 6th centuries]", Tony Sauvel had stated the seductive and probable hypothesis taken up by Bruno Judic : "I do not know if I am venturing too far down the always slippery path of hypotheses... But I think it is permissible to see, in our late tenth-century miniature [that of Fulda, below], the replica of a much older monumental painting, to see in it the Ottonian version of a pre-Carolingian work. Recall that the paintings of Gregory of Tours were in odd numbers, and this tends to place one of them at the center of the other six; the Amiens scene was, from that time, infinitely more famous than any of the other miracles, and it was only it that Fortunat evoked when he wanted to say in a few words who Saint Martin was. Conceived as at Fulda, that is, with its two episodes and with a Christ in majesty in its midst, this scene may well have found a place in the cathedral of Gregory of Tours, behind an altar, the other miracles being distributed three by three at its sides." Eric Palazzo also takes up this hypothesis in a article in the Catalog 2016.

    So here is the famous Fulda miniature, the earliest known illustration of Martin's Charity, in which a young soldier dresses a shivering wretch with half his cloak and sees him again in a dream the next night as his God. Dated about 975, it comes from a sacramentary of Fulda Abbey in Germany [Göttingen Library, link). The mantle is not red and there is no horse. Three variations are known, the two shown above and this one. [Maupoix 2018, Catalog 2016].

    Permanence of the double scene. The two scenes from the Fulda miniatures are found in this monumental (7 m long) 1941 painting by Basque painter Isaak Diez De Ibarrondo, a refugee in France after the Spanish War, in the church of St. Martin d'Oydes in Ariège (link). The double title is inscribed on the border  "Martin still a catechumen shares his officer's cloak with a poor man" and "That same evening Martin sees Christ who says  "You have clothed me with this cloak". The second scene features two rows of angels, as in the Fulda miniatures. This double scene can be found on these three miniatures : 1 psautier de Saint Alban circa 1130 [Maupoix 2018] 2 "Martinellus" 1110 [BmT] 3 Richer of Metz manuscript of the same period [after 1102, Trier Library]. On three frescoes : 1 cathedral of Bayonne [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal] 2 church of St Martin de Brull in Catalonia [flickr 11299883] 3 Church of St. Martin of Wangen im Allgäu in Germany [Gebhard Fugel, 1900, flickr János Korom]. And on three double paintings : 1 [Félix Villé circa 1895, St Martin des Champs church in Paris] 2 [Fidelis Schabet 1846, St Martin's Church in Unteressendorf (Hochdorf), Germany, Wikimedia] 3 [Francesco d'Antonio del Chierico, Saint Martin's Oratory of Florence, Italy, link].
    And there are, of course, many stained glass windows of the double stage, Like these thirteen there : 1 [Saint Martin's Church of Baume les Dames, in the Doubs, link] 2 [Saint Martin's Church in Sarralbe, in Moselle, with a third level, goose and coat of arms of Tours link + documentation with two songs]. 3 [Basilica of Saint Martin of Tours, with a preliminary scene, Lobin workshop] 4 [Cathedral of San Francisco in the USA, flickr Lawrence OP] 5 [St. Martin's Church in Chelsfield in England, flickr Glen] 6 [Christopher Whall 1907, Cathedral of Leicester in England, flickr Simon Wilkinson] 7 [Margaret Rope 1920, Cathedral of Shrewsbury in England, flickr Ernest Denim] 8 [church of Fornham St Martin in England, flickr window (17)] 9 [St Martin's Church in Gilocourt in OIse] 10 [Le Mans Cathedral, Wikimedia] 11 [Bourges Cathedral, flickr Paco Barranco] 12 [church of Saint Martin de Boscherville, flicke Images de Normandie] 13 [Christopher Whall 1905, St. Martin's Cathedral, Leicester England, flickr Aidan McRae Thomson]
    And five performances with both scenes in the same moment : 1 [church of San Martín de las Pirámides in Mexico, flickr Tacho Juarez Herrera] 2 [Church of St Martin des Champs in Paris, flickr P.K.] 3 Church of St. Martin of Aosta in Italy [Semur 2015] 4 St. Martin's Palace of Luvigliano in Italy [XVI century, Girolamo da Santa Croce, link] 5 [Father Silouan, school Our Lady of Mercy of New York, USA, flickr Jim Forest].

    Scene 2 of the cloak sharing: the dream of Martin. The poor man's given half-cape reappears in a dream covering God/Christ. Two illustrations from the book Maupoix 2018 : stained glass window from the collegiate church of Candes, by Félix Gaudin 1900, and painting from the Basilica of Saint Saviour in Pavia, Italy (+ view of the ensemble, Semur 2015). + from the same book : a vitrail of Chartres Cathedral and an anonymous tableau from the church of Saint Julien in Tours, 1687 + seventeen other illustrations : 1 [stained glass window from Tours Cathedral, bay #4] 2 [altarpiece panel, Francisco de Osona, early 16th century, Goya Museum of Castres Catalog 2016] 3 (Hungary) 4 wooden bas-relief from Figeac in the Lot, in the presence of Saints Peter and Paul (link) 5 painting from the church of Saint Martin de Dormelles in Ile de France (links : 1 2) 6 [Leconte and Colin 1891, St Martin de Moutiers church in Brittany] 7 [Jacques Stella, Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia, link] 8 [St. Martin de Bazeilles church in the Ardennes, link] 9 [Louis de Bodin de Galembert, church of Saint Martin du Limet in Mayenne] 10 [1886, Olivier Durieux, church of St Martin de Esquéhéries in Picardie] 11 [1701, church of Saint Martin de Jussac in Limousin, link] 12 [Victor-Casimir Zier, 1854, St. Martin de Meillac church in Brittany, link] 13 [St. Martin de Cublize church in the Rhône] 14 [St Martin's Church of Macquigny in the Aisne] 15 [Christopher Whall 1905, St. Martin's Cathedral, Leicester, flickr Aidan McRae Thomson] 16 miniature of the Salisbury Breviary [Lecoy 1881] 17 painting by Winifred Knights circa 1930 (link).

  3. From the obedient soldier to the one who defies the emperor Julian

    The birth of Martin. Martin was born in 316 in Savaria / Sabaria in the Roman province of Pannonia. Savaria is now called Szombathely and is located in Hungary, near the Austrian border. His father was an army officer, military tribune, then garrisoned in that city. He was then transferred to Pavia in northern Italy, where Martin spent most of his childhood.

    The birth of Martin pictured on a fresco in the church of San Martino in Siccomario, Italy [Semur 2015] and on a watercolor by an artist from his home country of Hungary (link). + a medallion from dalmatic from the collegiate church of St. Martin in Kortrijk, 16th century [Maupoix 2018], + a vitrail from the 16th century church of Saint Florentin in Yonne. + miniature from the Pannonhalma gospel in Hungary, with Martin being born in a stable [Pannonhalma Abbey library circa 1510, Lorincz 2001]

    Hungary and Martin. On the left is Szombathely, the birthplace of Martin. In the background the church of Saint Martin. In the foreground a statue of Martin blessing his mother [sculpture by Istvan Rumi Rajki 1938, links : 1 2] and on the right the "well of Saint Martin". + view from the sky [Lorincz 2001] + view ancient with the first name of Sabaria [Collective 2019] + cuts by church construction periods [1997 Colloquium SAT] + model of the statue [Catalog 2016]. On the right, 92 km from Szombathely in Hungary, the abbey of Pannonhalma on Mount St. Martin, founded in 996, a World Heritage UNESCO tourist and pilgrimage site, home to 45 Benedictine monks [Wikipedia photo]. + other photo [Lorincz 2001] + the library of the abbey [Semur 2015] + vitrail depicting Bishop Martin.and two scenes [flickr Zsolt Andrasi]. Remarks of Konkoly Istvan, Bishop of Szombathely, in 2001 : "Our first king, Saint Stephen, had the image of Martin embroidered on his flags. During his rule, St. Martin became, after the virgin, the second patron saint of Hungary. In 1903, at the Council of Szabolcs, our king Ladislas declared St. Martin a mandatory public holiday throughout the kingdom, preceded by a three-day youth."

    Martin's childhood in Pavia. Apparently an only child, Martin grew up in the Italian city of Pavia, probably attending a school. On the left, medallion of dalmatic [16th century, Courtrai in Belgium, Maupoix 2018]. On the right, Martin, in green, learns to read by following the lines with his finger [stained glass window from the church of Saint Florentin in Burgundy]. + plank from BD Utrecht 2016, box below.

    Martin's childhood in children's comics. The file in 7 pages "Saint Martin" by Catherine Leroudier is thus composed of three chapters  "The inventor of the parish", "Elected bishop by the people", "Christians at last free". Link with also the scene of the sharing of the cloak in 4 boxes to color, a file of 6 pages with games and a comic strip "The Life of St. Martin" of five pages, based on a script by Benoit Marchon and drawings by Louis Alloing (from volume 15 of the God's Seekers series, 2006, cover) : 1 2 3 4 5 (with a birth in 336 instead of 316, excerpt below).

    A similar scene in another file, with a comic by unspecified authors, of three plates : 1 2 3.

    Books or booklets, sometimes coloring or games, help children learn who Martin was, often in a religious context. A pếdagogical file was published in 2016, see below. + drawing 1997 of children at Saint Martin Lacaussade in Gironde [LM 2008-5).

    The departure for the army. Régine Pernoud: "In 331 appeared an edict of the emperor Constantine I which obliged all the sons of veterans to enlist in the Roman army. At the age of 16, therefore in 332, although he felt he belonged to the Christian community, Martin had no other choice, especially since his father obliged him to do so: he enlisted in the Roman army for a period of 25 years. During this long military period, Martin found himself in contradiction with his Christian ideal, especially since his baptism at the age of 18. It was not until the end of his enlistment that he refused to fight. Even during his lifetime, he was reproached for this.

    Young Martin forced by his father to enlist in the army. Maric - Frisano 1994 + the plank + brodery from the 14th century at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art where the child Martin announces to his parents his desire to become a Christian.

    Martins soldier. Young Martin, enrolled in the Roman army, lends soldier: stained glass window (Lobin workshop) and then capital in the current Saint Martin's Basilica in Tours. Center right, stained glass window from the St. Martin's Cathedral in Leicester in Great Britain + its environment [flickr photos Lawrence OP]. At right, stained glass window from Saint Simon's Island in the United States [flickr photo pmcdonald851]. + fresco presenting this enlistment as a knighthood [Simone Martini, St. Martin's Chapel of Assisi, 1325] + three stained glass windows : 1 cathedral of Tours (bay #204) where Martin swears an oath to a representative of the emperor, while his slave attaches a gaiter [flickr photo Paco Barranco] 2 cathedral in San Francisco, USA [flickr Lawrence OP] 3 James Powell and sons 1921, church in Oxted in England [flickr Robin Croft].

    Martin's life in a few dates
    316: birth in Pannonia (Hungary).
    321 (5 years): childhood in Pavia (Italy)
    332 (16 years): enlistment in the army
    334 (18 years old): sharing the mantle in Amiens, baptism
    356 (40 years old): leaving the army
    360 (44 years): foundation of the monastery of Ligugé
    371 (55 years): election to the bishopric of Tours
    372 (56 years) : foundation of the monastery of Marmoutier
    385 (69 years): journey to Trier, Priscillian affair
    397 (81 years old) : death in Candes

    The baptism of Martin took place shortly after the sharing of the mantle in Amiens, when he was 18 or 19. We don't know the details, we don't know who baptized him and where. Perhaps still in Amiens? Probably in Gaul...

    At left case coupled with the sharing of the mantle on a miniature by Master Francis 1460 [BnF]. In the center, stained glass window from the church of Saint Martin le Beau in Touraine [atelier Lobin]. On the right, stained glass window from the church of Saint Martin de Restigné in Touraine [workshop of Félix Gaudin, Paris, Verrière 2018] + seven other stained glass windows : 1 cathedral of Tours (bay #204) 2 Chartres Cathedral 3 Bourges Cathedral [Verry 2018] 4 church in Saint Martin es Vignes in the Aube 5 church of Saint Florentin in Yonne 6 [church of St. Martin de Wimy in the Aisne] 7 [St Martin's Church of Rumilly lès Vaudes in Aube, Nguyen DoDuc] + Icelandic embroidery preserved in the Louvre, ca. 15th century [Maupoix 2018] + image from La Bonne Presse 20th century. .

    Did Martin shed blood? Baptized at 18 (shortly after the sharing of the mantle), he was both a soldier and a Christian for 22 years. Charles Lelong answers this question in his book "Martin of Tours, life and posthumous glory" (CLD 2000) : "Normally, he should have participated in the battle of Brumath [in 356 against the Alamans, link] : would Sulpice have failed to report it ? Should we assume that Martin would have been poured into non-combatant troops ? Or that his corps joined the army only after the battle? In any case "it is difficult to think (in long chronology) that Martin did not shed blood" (J. Fontaine)." Régine Pernoud, while adopting Fontaine's long chronology, thinks that Martin did not shed blood for twenty years and that, seeing this long feared risk coming, he decided to ask for his departure. Eventually, with the understanding of his superiors, he was able to deal with the maintenance of order or with logistics or with communication... Then, as Christians became more and more numerous in the army, this flexibility would have disappeared...

    The emperors ruling Gaul during Martin's lifetime, and their places of residence
    (those who actually ruled it, whether Augustus or Caesar, officially recognized or so-called usurpers)
    Constantin I 310-337 Arles, Trier, Sirmium, Constantinople
    Constantine II 337-340 Trier
    Constantine I 340-350 Sirmium, Milan
    Magnia 350-353 Lyon, Arles, Rome
    Constantius II 353-355 Sirmium, Constantinople
    Julian 355-363 Vienna, Sens, Paris, Constantinople
    Jovian 363-364 Constantinople
    Valentine I 364-375 Milan, Trier
    Gratian 375-383 Trier
    Magnus Maximus 383-388 Trier
    Valentino II 388-392 Milan, Vienna
    Theodosius I 392-395 Arles, Rome
    Flavius Honorius 395-423 Rome, Ravenna
    Martin met three emperors: Julian, Valentinian I and, twice, Maximus.

    356, the meeting of Martin and Emperor Julian, near Worms, Germany. During a donativum (largesse given to soldiers), the soldier Martin tried to reconcile obedience to his emperor Julian with that to his God. Even to the point of asking the former not to fight. Although this meeting has been disputed by Albert Lecoy de la Marche, who places it much earlier with another emperor, this episode appears to be consistent with other facts. It was therefore in 356, shortly before Martin left the army.

    Did Martin carry his sword like a cross for many years? [stained glass window from the church in Vegreville in Canada].

    On the left, Gaul from 367 to 388 under Gratian and Magnus Maximus, during the episcopate of Martin, and also from 355 to 361 under Julian.
    In the center stained glass window of the church of St. Martin de Saint Martin du Lac, in Burgundy (photo Odile Cognard, link + another vitrail showing Julien and Martin [church in Avallon in Burgundy, flickr Grangeburn]. On the right two boxes by Brunor - Bar 2009 + three plates : 1 2 3. + the same scene in two plates by Maric - Frisano 1994 : 1 2 + the same encounter in a tableau by Simone Martini [fresco in the St. Martin's Chapel in Assisi, Italy, ca. 1325] + in his copy in restored colors [flickr Hen-Magonza] + in his reproduction [Lecoy 1881], in a miniature of the "Martinellus" 1110 [BmT]. and in a vitrail from Nouans les Fontaines in Touraine [atelier Lobin 1876, Verrière 2018].

    In his Maupoix 2018, Michel Maupoix leads one to wonder: Was Martin a secret agent of Emperor Constantius II ? "It is appropriate to reread the episode of the refused donativum. Martin is by his functions a close friend of Julian, to whom he can have direct access. The Caesar does not hand over the donativum in person to several thousand people, but only to his close guard. Martin already belonged to Constantius' bodyguard, who assigned him, as much to watch over him as to protect him, to Caesar Julian. This hypothesis would be consistent with everything we know about Constantius, his distrust, and the way he had previously proceeded with Caesar Gallus, Julian's brother, whom the suspicious emperor had not hesitated to have executed by the very same people who were for a time charged with watching over his safety... and who are the same ones with Julian. Martin, in this hypothesis, would have accompanied Julian since his departure from Milan, on December 1, 355, and one finds him logically with the army, in the summer 356, in front of the city of Worms. Sulpice indicates that Martin served under Constantius and the Caesar Julian." By extrapolating a little more, one can estimate that Julian was relieved to have found a pretext to get rid of Martin that he knew too close to his adversary Constantius II. This would have been a good arrangement for both Martin and Julien...

    On the left, Martin lays down his helmet and arms and leaves the army [église Saint Martin de Berthenay, in Touraine, Amand Clément 1878, Verrière 2018]
    Would Julian have been able to found a Gallic empire ? If Constantius II had left him in peace, Julian would have had the stature to create the foundations of a long-lasting empire... He could firmly establish the brief empire of the Gauls created by Postum a century earlier... "Apostate" is a comic book series, created in 2009 in the Netherlands, directed by Ken Broeders, consisting of seven albums and a special edition (BD Must Publishing). Julien is the hero. It is true that his extraordinary life lends itself to a great saga. This one is realized with care and lyricism. To follow Michel Maupoix, Martin had his place there... Above right a box from volume 4 + two plates from volume 1 (2012 in French version) : 1 2 (355, Julien named Caesar) + four pages from volume 5 (2018) : 1 2 3 4 (October 361, death of Constantius II, Julian becomes Augustus, cover). This page from can also be viewed. + article by Robert Turcan 1987 about the book "Julian Says the Apostate" by Lucien Jerphagnon. >>>On the adjacent page is the chapter titled "355-361 Julian Caesar of the Gauls, Before Becoming Emperor Julian the Apostate".

    Martin deserter or military hero? Bruno Judic, still in the Arte program, believes that the appropriation of Martin as a Patron Saint by Clovis and the Merovingians modifies his symbolic role : "At the opposite of his biography, Martin is presented as a military hero, "the protector of the Frankish army." The king goes to war wearing the banner of St. Martin, that is, his cloak or cope. He becomes a military saint. Luce Pietri, at the 2016 colloquium, considers him more of a "soldier of peace". Even today, Martin is celebrated by the French army, for example here on November 13, 2018 for Saint Martin's Day. Yet, let us remember that the emperor Julian and his officers, had considered Martin a deserter... Remarkably, in other circumstances, in the twentieth century, Martin was again considered a deserter, as recounted by Bruno Judic in the preface to the Collective 2019 : "In the aftermath of World War I, the Reverend Dick Sheppard, at St Martin in the Fields (London), engaged in a great deal of charitable activity, but also in promoting a pacifism and antimilitarism that found some resonance in English society. However, he placed his pacifist action under the aegis of St. Martin the "deserter" of Worms."

    A handicap turned advantage. Thus, in a century, the biggest reproach made to Martin, including by his disciple Brice, that of having been "soiled" by his military past, has become a title of glory. Luce Pietri, in her 1980 thesis (page 82), recalls that :"In ecclesiastical circles, it had probably not been forgotten that Martin had been consecrated in spite of the initial opposition of several prelates invited to the ceremony; at a time when the canonical texts manifested a growing hostility to the intrusion into the ranks of the clergy of former military men. Martin's past was to warn many minds against him within the episcopate. [...]The priesthood was forbidden to those who had exercised power in the century and served in the militia after baptism. During Martin's lifetime, this prohibition is repeated several times by the pope Sirice (384-398)". A century later, Christianity, which had become virtually compulsory, had spread, including in the army, the notion of "just war" was spreading, and God's law was becoming compatible with that of the senior officers. The example of a military saint could only appeal to Clovis and the Frankish aristocracy, Martin being then the only one, along with Maurice of Agaune, to have this profile.

  4. Martin and Hilaire of Poitiers: Ligugé and intolerance against Arianism

    On the left, Martin's major travels [Semur 2015] + two more maps with some supplements : 1 [Catalogue 2016] 2 [LM 2007-4].
    Did Martin stop at the tomb of Vitaline? At right, one of Martin's possible stops, in Auvergne at Artonne where, according to Gregory of Tours, he would have recollected himself at the tomb of Vitaline. While this ruling appears plausible, there is reason to be circumspect about the dialogue reported by Gregory : "" Tell us, most holy virgin, if you have ever deserved the presence of the Lord " to which Vitaline replied that she had not, for she had sinned by washing her hair on Good Friday (this coquetry therefore earned her Purgatory). Martin's prayers opened up Paradise for her." [wikipedia]. Stained glass window of the church of St Martin d'Artonne [flickr Martine Sodaigui], the precise date of the passage is indicated : 25 March 390.
    Other legendary anecdotes that may mark Martin's passage will be mentioned on this page. For the long journey through Italy, let's add the passage through Pont Saint Martin in Aosta Valley (article, LM 2008-2) and the reconstruction of its journey through the Alps (article, LM 2008-1).

    356, Martin becomes an exorcist. Upon his discharge from the army, Martin turns to a Christian for whom he has a high regard, Hilaire, bishop of Poitiers, who initially welcomes him briefly, Perhaps believing that his military background prohibited him from becoming priest, Martin initially refused the position of deacon that Hilary offered him to accept that of exorcist. When he became a bishop, Martin kept this position of exorcist, which explains his frequent encounters with the devil and demons.

    Martin confronts the demons. On the left, stained glass window from the church of Saint Martin de Ligugé where Martin is ordained as an exorcist by Hilaire. On the right painting from the Church of Saint Martin of Asse, in Belgium [circa 1880, link]. + tableau of Tours Cathedral [Maupoix 2018] + brodery [New York's Metropolitan museum of art, Maupoix 2018] + engraving where Hilaire gives Martin the religious habit [BmT 1516, Lecoy 1881] + four stained glass windows : 1 [13th century, Saint Martin d'Anctoville-sur-Boscq church, Manche, link] 2 [Jacques le Breton, Jean Gaudin, Paris, 1935, church of St. Martin de Restigné, in Touraine, Verrière 2018]. 3 Hilaire tonsure Martin (with modern scissors !) [one of the nine paintings in the St. Hilaire glass roof of the St. Hilaire Church in Menétréol sous Sancerre in the Cher, link] 4 [Bourges Cathedral, flickr Paco Barranco]

    Martin, an energetic opponent of the Arian heresy. In the second half of his life, after he left the army, in addition to his fight against the Pagans, Martin fought against Christians considered heretics. He was a Nicene fighter against the Arians, practicing Arianism, a Christianity denying the Trinity. Under Emperor Constantine I, the Council of Nicaea in 325 (Martin was 9 years old) had rejected a large portion of Christians. As Georges-André Morin points out in his article "Islam, a successful Arianism?" (link) (+ on this topic, this other page and this page debate), Constantine himself, in the last years of his life was an Arian (excerpt 1) and his son Constantius II was a strong supporter of Arianism. The freedom of worship, established by Julian, had a short paradoxical effect (extract 2), and then Theodosius imposed in 380 (Martin had been bishop for 9 years) Nicene Christianity as the state religion (extract 3), leaving freedom of worship until 392 (5 years before Martin's death). After his first visit to Ligugé, Martin made a long journey, from 356 to 360, finding his parents in Sirmium, converting his mother, not his father, and passing through Milan and Rome, staying for a time on the island of Gallinara. This journey raises questions  Sirmium is the place of residence of Constantius II and, in 357, it was held there a great council which saw the triumph of the Arian party. It is astonishing that Sulpice Severus passes under silence that... In Milan, Martin defies the Arian bishop. Would it be missioned by Constance II, however favorable to Arianism, as it could have been in front of Julian, according to the assumption of Michel Maupoix? Martin's intransigence against the Arians brought him many setbacks. In Milan, he was beaten and humiliated.

    His mother, not his father. After completing his long years of military obligations and briefly knowing Hilaire, bishop of Poitiers, Martin travels for four years, from 356 to 360. He sees his parents again, converts his mother, but not his father. The same scene on the left in an engraving by Jacques-Emile Lafon [Lecoy 1881]. On the right, Martin's father gives an argumentative refusal to his son, who "didn't know what to say" [Brunor - Bar 2009]. + tableau by Bernard Benezet at the church in Buzet sur Tarn (link). + three stained glass windows : 1 [Candes , workshop of Félix Gaudin from Paris, Verriere 2018] 2 [Church of St. Martin de Beaupréau, link] 3 [St Martin's Church of Ammerschwihr in Alsace].

    In the middle of the fourth century, the bishops of Gaul adopted the Arian heresy. Michel Laurencin, in "Saint Martin of Tours XVIth Centenary" (CLD 1996) draws a picture of the Gallic episcopate, emphasizing the importance of Hilary : "The crisis born of Arianism left after-effects within the episcopate of Gaul, and the support given by the emperor Constantius to the heresy, starting in the 350s, had a direct influence on this episcopal body. At the council held at Arles in 353, only Pauline of Trier (who was later deposed and exiled to Phrygia where he was to die) opposed the declaration condemning Athanasius of Alexandria. The Arian victory was thus total, as at the Council of Milan in 355: Denis, the bishop of the city, hostile to Arianism, was replaced by a bishop favourable to Athanasius' opponents. At the Council of Béziers in 356, Hilaire of Poitiers pays for his Nicene orthodoxy by exile in Phrygia while the clan of Arianism, among the Gallic bishops, finds its main defenders in Saturnin of Arles and Paterne of Périgueux. [...]The rift within the churches of Gaul is complete. [...]. At the Council of Rimini in 359 about fifteen irreducible bishops out of more than four hundred present condemn the doctrine of Arius following Phebabe of Agen. It was in fact necessary to wait for the accession of Julian to the empire and the return from exile of Hilary of Poitiers so that at the council of Lutetia (Paris) in 361 the Arian crisis in Gaul came to an end with the adherence of the bishops to the Nicene faith and the condemnation of the semi-Arian bishops."

    Martin humiliated by the Arians in Milan. In Milan, sometimes considered a Sabellian (follower of Sabellius) (one understands the criticisms of division of Christians made by Fr.), Martin is whipped and driven out by the Arians and the bishop Auxentius (who was succeeded by the Nicene Ambrose). This passage to Milan is depicted on the left by a 1994 Maric-Frisano box and in the center in a stained glass window of St. Florentin (Yonne, bay on the life of St. Martin, link) (with the anachronism of a Martin clothed as a bishop). + the same scene on a vitrail from the church of Saint Martin in Louveciennes, Yvelines (link). + three variations of the passage to Milan in three comic strips : 1 [Brunor - Bar 2009] 2 [Maric - Frisano 1994] 3 [Mestrallet, Fagot - d'Esme 1996]
    Martin seriously ill on the island of Gallinara. After his misadventures in Milan, Martin isolated himself for four years on the small island of Gallinara (photo), where he suffered severe food poisoning, pictured right [Mestrallet, Fagot - d'Esme 1996 + the plank + the same scene on a plank of Maric - Frisano 1994 + plank of BD Utrecht 2016. This island was bought 10 million euros in 2020 by a Ukrainian resident of Monaco (link) + a reportage [LM 2008-3] on the island and the neighboring town of Albenga (photo) where Martin stayed (+ miniature Italian featuring Martin on the island, link).

    The Temptation of St. Anthony is a recurring theme in many painters' pictures. There, Anthony, the recluse in the Egyptian desert, suffers the temptation of the Devil in the form of visions of earthly voluptuousness. This is a version by David Teniers the Younger [ca. 1650, Lille Museum, Wikipedia], who, highly inspired, produced at least five more : 1 2 3 4 5 [4 and 5 : Louvre Museum] (link). + (without resisting the temptation...) fourteen other paintings [Wikipedia] : 1 [Michelangelo circa 1487, Kimbell Museum, Texas] 2 [Jerome Bosch circa 1500, National Museum of Ancient Art Lisbon] 3 [Joachim Patinier circa 1522, Prado Museum, Madrid] 4 [Pieter Coecke van Aelst circa 1547, The Prado, Madrid] 5 [Pieter Huys circa 1547, The Louvre, Paris] 6 [Jan Wellens de Cock 1521, National Gallery of Art, Washington] 7 [Paul Veronese circa 1553, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Caen] 8 [a follower of Pieter Brueghel the Elder circa 1560, National Gallery Washington] 9 [Pieter Brueghel the Younger circa 1600, Palazzo Spinola di San Luca, Genoa] 10 [Jacques Callot 1635, National Gallery of Art, Washington] 11 [Josse van Craesbeeck circa 1650, Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe] 12 [Henri Fantin-Latour circa 1875, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo] 13 [Paul Cézanne circa 1877, Musée d'Orsay, Paris] 14 [Félicien Rops 1878, Royal Library of Belgium]

    The Temptation of St. Martin, no painting so titled, and yet, looking... On the left, a painting placed in the chapel of Burgley House in England [flickr Billy Wilson, link]. At right, a painting by Peter Pietri. Even though the women are heavily clothed, the caption of this vitrail is explicit  "The devil uses all his power to tempt him" [St. Martin's Church in Grandville in Champagne]. Even the sharing of the cloak can be understood as a temptation when "the almost naked poor man" exposes his young androgynous body completely naked on this tableau by Anton Faistauer [Leopold Museum in Vienna, Austria, flickr Michael Martin].

    Martin, a disciple of Hilaire of Poitiers, established the monastery of Ligugé. Upon his return to Poitou, in 360, Hilaire installed Martin at Ligugè, 8 km from Poitiers  he lived there as a hermit, creating the first monastery in the West, as Athanasius (297-373), bishop of Alexandria, a major figure in the Church, had done in the East. With Hilary's support, Martin was inspired by him, along with two other great precursors of monasticism, Anthony the Great and (251-356) and Pacostus (292-349). All three practiced in the East, Martin was the first to introduce monastic life to the West.

    Dialogue between Martin and Hilaire. [Brunor - Bar 2009] + two boards : 1 2
    plank showing Martin at Ligugé [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]

    On the left, in 350, Hilaire was elected bishop of Poitiers. In the center, in 359, Hilary fights Arianism at the Council of Sebacea. At right, allegorical meeting of Martin, dressed as a bishop (after 371), with the one who trained him at Ligugé, Hilaire (died 367). [Saint Hilaire de Montcuq church, link] + tableau depicting Hilaire trampling the Arian dragon [St Hilaire church in Payré, in the Vienne].

    Sanctus Hilarius under the dome of the present-day Basilica of Saint Martin in Tours.

    Later the abbey of Saint-Martin de Ligugé. After Martin's departure to Tours, this venerable place remained occupied by monks, with interruptions during the Visigoth occupation in the 5th century and then in the 8th century and during the Norman invasions. The abbey was restored in the 10th century by the Countess of Poitiers, Adèle, daughter of Rollon of Normandy (a Norman !... named Gerloc before her marriage) and wife of Guillaume Tête d'Etoupe, the powerful count of Poitiers. The Benedictine rule was then adopted, and the abbey depended on that of Saint-Cyprien, in Poitiers. It endures from destruction to reconstruction, passing temporarily under the order of Cluny and then that of the Jesuits, also serving as a place of study, where Rabelais (portrait 1904 of the city hall of Tours) passed. Ligugé was then in retreat from the cult of Martin, while Marmoutier radiated. Disappearance during the Revolution, restoration of monastic life in the 19th century, expulsion in 1901, return in 1923, the power of regeneration of the place is powerful. Since 1945, the abbey has been home to a enamel workshop. It welcomes people wishing to retreat there (oblates), including Paul Claudel. Today it has about thirty monks safeguarding the spirit of Martin.

    Ligugé Abbey, the library and office in the Middle Ages ["The Lady of Ligugé", volume 3 of the series "The Stone Master", texts by Daniel Bardet, drawing by Jean-Marc Stalner, Dargaud 2004] + the plank + photo of the library [flickr Jean Pierre Février]. The courtyard and terrace of the Saint-Martin de Ligugé Abbey and its view from the sky. + engraving [Lecoy 1881] + the book "Saint Martin and his monastery of Ligugé," 1873, by François Chamard, 415 pages [Gallica] + photo with commentary of the crypt (link) + another photo of the crypt and photo of a tombstone ["St. Martin of Tours, 16th centenary" 1996]] + flyer about St. Martin de Ligugé Church.

    Martin anti-Arian champion. After his death, Martin was used to continue fighting the heretics Arians. Bruno Judic (in the article "The Origins of the Cult of St. Martin of Tours in the Fifth and Sixth Centuries") : "This church in Ravenna had been built in the early sixth century by Theodoric under the vocable of Christ. But Theodoric was an Arian, and after the Justinian reconquest of 540, the Ravennate churches had to be rid of the memories of the Arian Goths. This church received a new patronage, St. Martin, San Martino al ciel d'oro, with a new mosaic decoration. This great Ravenna achievement completes, as it were, the development of an essential initial aspect of the cult of St. Martin, the struggle of orthodoxy against Arianism. Martin is the champion of Saint Hilary, according to the very text of Sulpice Severus. This anti-Arian dimension is most certainly capital in the rise of the cult in the 5th century and especially in Italy where the Arian presence is more sensitive than in Gaul. Let us recall that the patrician Ricimer was the real ruler of Rome between 455 and 472 and that he was an Arian. A little later, Theodoric, sent with his Ostrogothic army by Emperor Zeno against Odoacre in 488, was also Arian. This Gothic Arianism probably had above all a political function: to distinguish the Gothic warrior group from the rest of the Italian population. But the bishops nevertheless had to reaffirm the orthodox position. The cult of St. Martin appears as a means of affirming Nicene orthodoxy." In short, the cult of Martin agreed with political aims.

    In Ravenna, Martin is the first of the saints. By 402, Ravenna had replaced Rome as capital of the Western Roman Empire. After its fall in 476, it became the capital of Odoacre's kingdom of Italy, and then from 493, that of the kingdom of the Ostrogoths ruled by Theodoric the Great (455-526), of Arian religion, before being taken by the Eastern Empire general Narses (478-573) in 552. This mosaic from the basilica of St. Apollinaris the Ninth, built by Theodoric, dates to 560 / 570. It shows a procession of saints. Martin is the first of them in honorary purple robes, followed by Clement, Sixtus, Laurent, Hippolytus, Apollinaire and the Twelve Apostles [flickr photos Nick Thompson]. This first place is explained by the desire to extirpate the Arian heresy rooted in this city by venerating the one who best fought it. + three overviews of the fresco : 1 (lien) 2 (link) 3 [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal] + a figuration of Martin in a snapshot [Maupoix 2018]. This mosaic shows us the oldest known representation of Martin. His strong influence in Italy can also be seen in the mosaic of Torcello [commentary by Michel Maupoix, Maupoix 2018].

  5. From his election to his glorification, the humble Martin and the townspeople of Tours

    Evolution of the city of Tours 1/7 : Turonorum, Caesarodunum and Turonis. Caesorodunum, was established in the 1st century AD as the capital of the Turons / Turones (named after Celts probably from the vicinity of Thuringia who arrived in the 4th century BC). It had a large amphitheater, a remarkable round temple, a 25 km underground canalized aqueduct (+ article by Cyril Driard, Ta&m 2007), a bridge over the Loire (+ article by Jacques Seigne and Patrick Neury, Ta&m 2007).

    Did Tours exist before Caesarodunum? The city of Turons located around a hill (dunum means hill in Gallic) has been referred to by several names : Caesarodunum (Caesar's hill) / Turonis (this is what Sulpice Severus and therefore Martin called it) / urbs Turonum / Tours... This table lists all the Latin names of the city [Ta&m 2007 page 282). Missing is what was probably the first mention, found in an underground in the Museum of Fine Arts:photo (link) + another photo (link). This is the inscription "Civitas Turonorum libera" saying that Tours is a free city. + explanatory [Alain Ferdière, Ta&m 2007]. This inscription is generally dated to about 50, and even earlier in the reign of Tiberius, from 14 to 37. Its translation (Turonorum being a generative plural) is "The free city of the Turons." Since the reuse of "civitas Turonorum" is attested in the 5th century, this designation was probably continuously used from the 1st to the 5th. The name Tours / Turonorum would therefore be at least as old as Caesarodunum. Hence these questions: did Tours, under a close name (Turonos in Gallic ?) pre-exist Caesarodunum ? Is Caesarodunum only an administrative designation of appearance covering temporarily that of Tours ? It is known that before the Roman occupation, the area was occupied by a Gallic settlement (article by Raphael de Filippo Ta&m 2007). However, the capital of the Turons then seemed to be Amboise / Ambacia, the Romans would have imposed a new place, more to their liking. On this subject, read the interview with Pierre Audin in an article in the Mag. Touraine 2010 #114 : 1 2.

    Left around 150, open city, with its first bridge + another plan circa 150 ["Tours and its History", Bernard Chevalier, Privat 1985]. On the right around 400, following the barbarian invasions, the city is narrowed and closed in its ramparts, with its second bridge and with the circle of the amphitheater on half of which leans, in orange, the Gaulish enclosure [Ta&m 2007] It is the Gauls inhabitants of this castrum (fortified place) then named Turonorum who choose Martin as bishop.
    One of the largest amphitheaters of the Roman Empire. Above, in the center, a vomitory of the amphitheater of Caesarodunum, which was much more accessible in Martin's time than it is later and currently (in private cellars...). The amphitheater was even forgotten for several centuries before being rediscovered in the nineteenth century (first survey of 1844, count of Galembert, SAT). These vomitories are not to be confused with the subterranean tunnels along the ramparts, already indicated above or on this photo by Gérard Proust [La NR]. It was probably during the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138), that an amphitheater of 112 by 94 meters was created. The terraces were not made of stone but of clay, probably with mobile wooden structures. The capacity must have been insufficient because, in the middle or second half of the second century, the work was enlarged in a spectacular way: 156 meters on 134, allowing to welcome almost 34.000 persons. It was then one of the five largest amphitheaters in the Roman Empire, along with those of Autun (Augustodunum), Milan (Mediolanum), Santiponce (Italica) and Carthage (Carthago). Given the small population of the city, we must assume that the rural population moved dozens of miles around. This place of leisure very quickly became a citadel of defense. + article by Jacques Seigne, Ta&m 2007 + restitution in its original unenlarged version by Cossu-Delaunay 2020.

    This is what Tours looked like when Martin was its bishop (with the 2nd bridge and the expanded amphitheater).
    This view is a little later, 50 years later, around 450, since a construction of Bishop Eustoche, is mentioned + four other illustrations from the same work Cossu-Delaunay 2020 : 1 (open city circa 100, with captions, 1st bridge) 2 (the forum) 3 (the baths) 4 (open city circa 150, 1st bridge, stream la Boire, unenlarged amphitheatre) By removing the church of Saint Gervais and Protais, noted G, we can consider that we have above the state of Turonis during the episcopate of Martin. Moreover, this church, was rather located in the southwest corner of the enclosure, as shown on this diagram from Pierre Audin's 2002 book, which we will see again hereafter. + collective article "Urban Space circa 400" [Ta&m 2007]. Suites in Evolution 2/7, 3/7, 4/7, 5/7, 6/7 and 7/7.

    On the left, rendering of the round temple and on the right, rendering of the ramparts [Ta&m 2007). In the center, Tours, capital of the Lyonnaise Third + map of the dioceses.
    An unusual round temple. Martin knew only the ruins of this round temple that could not be made into a church and was outside the walled enclosure. With an imposing diameter of almost 30 meters, it is not certain that it was covered with a roof. It is not known which god was celebrated there. + article by Anne-Marie Jouquand, Ta&m 2007 + restitution by Cossu-Delaunay 2020.

    The ramparts of Tours 1/5: the Gallic enclosure. At that time Egypt was not Egyptian-Roman, Spain was not Spanish-Roman and Gaul was not Gallo-Roman, it was Gallic. It was indeed the Gauls who built the first city walls, those that Martin crossed many times. They did not need the advice of the Romans, even if they relied, in the south, on a monument imported by the Romans, the amphitheater, even if it was designated by the Roman word of castrum (it is probable that it was also named by a Gallic word). + other plan of Tours circa 400 (link). + article by Jacques Seigne "The fortification of the city in the Late Empire, from the amphitheater-fortress to the castrum" + restitution (with commentary on the evolution of the equipment of Gallic and Roman soldiers) and reasons (to protect themselves from barbarian raids) by Cossu-Delaunay 2020. It seems likely that the construction of the 2nd bridge, judiciously placed, and the abandonment, or even destruction, of the first bridge accompanied the building of the enclosure.

    Martin, Armence, Perpet, Clotilde, Gregory and many others knew these walls of the Civitas Turonorum, appreciated by the Tourangeaux and Tourangelles of today ["History of Touraine" by Pierre Audin, Gestes Editions 2016]. Left and center (red A in the above map), the southwest tower, which (without the added roof and windows) saw Martin enter his ecclesia, where the cathedral stands in the background. + engraving of Oury - Pons 1977. At right (red B of the above plan), portion of the rampart and southeast tower. + two more photos : 1 2. +  two engravings LTh&m 1855 : 1 2. Remparts Suites 2/5, 3/5, 4/5 and 5/5

    Ta&m 2007. In 2007, the voluminous collective work "Ancient and Medieval Tours," coordinated by Henri Galinié, traced the evolution of the city of Tours. As summarized on the INRAP website, the work begins with the Protohistory stage presenting a "important Gallic settlement" for an occupation that may have been quite brief. Then came the High Empire with the creation of the city of Caesarodunum (1st and 2nd centuries). Then the city shrinks dramatically : "After the open city had reached its maximum extension in the 2nd century, a slow retraction of the urbanized area is observed from the year 200, beginning with its margins. The amphitheater was transformed into a fort in the east of the open city." In the Bas-Empire, the city curled around the amphitheater into a walled city, surrounded by walls. It was necessary to resist the barbarian invasions (ten years to entrench itself behind its ramparts). In the fourth century, Turonis recovered and became the capital of the province "Lyonnaise third". + presentation by Bruno Dufay, 2008 + page for access to the 159 chapters of the book + preamble (historical and archaeological) and conclusion ("Two, three or four cities ?") by Henri Galinié.

    Did Martin help Tours become a regional capital ? Although a modest agglomeration, Tours became the capital of the Lyonnaise Gaul Third region, comprising Armorique, Maine, Anjou, Touraine (links : 1 2). In a article titled "Les avatars de la civitas Turonorum" [Ta&m 2007], Alain Ferdière estimates that this appointment took place, not around 350 as has been believed, but between 364-369 and 388. In 2013, in his study on the castle of Tours, Vassy Malatra advances the date of 374. Since Martin took office as bishop in 371, it seems surprising that no historian seems to have considered the possibility that the emerging prestige of the apostle of the Gauls might have had an influence on this decision. Martin met with Emperor Valentinian I before the latter's death in 375. The question is therefore legitimate, even if an answer seems impossible...

    It is from the end of the 3rd century that the habit is taken little by little not to name the big cities by their Roman name but by the territory which they command. Thus Lutetia, capital of the Parisii, became Parisius / Paris and Caesarodunum became ad Turonos (among the Turons) / Civitas Turonorum / Turonis / Tours. Martin was thus bishop of Turonis rather than of Caesarodunum, as is sometimes written. In 1996, Nancy Gauthier wrote a article of 14 pages titled "Bishop Martin and the City of Tours". Here are excerpts.

    Martin patron of the city of Tours. "What Martin, concerned only with God and men, had not done for his city during his lifetime, he did after his death. Modestly buried without any appearance in the public cemetery of the city, he enjoyed, after a few decades, such a fame that his successor Brictio [Brice], although without enthusiasm, was well obliged to admit that his memory was celebrated in a small basilica erected on his tomb. It is in the second half of the 5th century that the situation changes completely. Bishop Perpetuus launches a real promotional campaign on the theme "Martin, bishop of Tours". This is a new theme since, as we have seen, the admiration of Sulpice Severus was directed at the figure of the ascetic and the miracle worker in its universal dimensions and without particular reference to the see of Tours. Perpetuus therefore replaced the modest funerary sanctuary of Brictio with a huge basilica, for which he commissioned paintings and inscriptions intended to exalt the merits and power of Martin as bishop of Tours. He also commissioned Paulin of Périgueux to write a life in verse where, as Luce Pietri has shown, the Vita of Sulpice Severus was rewritten with the aim of giving the city of Tours its full glory. From now on, if Martin is the apostle sent to evangelize Gaul, Tours is the Urbs Martini. Martin is "fully present there, manifesting his powers with all his grace", as an inscription near the tomb underlines. He is forever the patron saint of the city of which he was the bishop."

    Martin crowned by his god, detail of an 11th century fresco in the Charlemagne tower of the Hervé basilica (one guesses a hand holding a crown on his head) [Lelong 1986, photo Collon-Arsicaud). In the 21st century, from the top of his Laloux basilica, Martin watches over the city of Tours and its diocese, of which he was the second bishop in the 4th century. + another photo from 2018, also taken from the top of the Charlemagne tower + postcard.

    [...] "At the end of the sixth century and thanks to the methodical exploitation of the memory left by Martin and the miracles that occurred at his tomb, Tours became what it was not during the hero's lifetime : a great pilgrimage city, an important political center. a city adorned with a whole set of sumptuous religious buildings. Gregory shows that a real pole of occupation was constituted around the basilica of Saint-Martin, with baptistry, monasteries, lodgings for the refugees who came to benefit from the right of asylum, etc. These descriptions are partially confirmed by the excavation carried out in the atrium of Saint-Martin where, after a funerary use in the 4th - 5th centuries, a dense and continuous domestic occupation followed from the 6th century. But this nucleus of occupation is limited to Saint-Martin and its annexes. This is certainly not much in demographic or economic terms. The renown of Tours should not make us forget the modesty of the material reality. H. Galinié speaks ď " a city without urban life ". This mediocrity is by no means exclusive to Tours and only shows that, in order to think about the notion of city in the early Middle Ages, we must change our mental categories. Tours did become, at last, a "great city", but what makes it great is that it is sanctified by the presence of the body of Saint Martin. Tours takes its place, like Jerusalem, among the " holy places " where God preferentially manifests his power."

    Objects that Martin may have known. They were found in Tours and are presented in Pierre Audin's book "Tours à l'époque gallo-romaine", editions Alain Sutton 2002. They are, for the most part, in the SAT collection. Below is a bronze mirror found on Albert Thomas Street around 1884.
    A great Martin for a despicable city of Tours ?"Thus, during Martin's lifetime, it was not Tours that made Martin great, nor even contributed to it in any way  it was Martin who made Tours great. [...]Martin owes his influence to his personal aura  the siege of Tours plays no part in it. It only emerges from anonymity because Martin is the bishop". Later, Guy-Marie Oury recounts in "Religious History of Touraine", the author of a sermon for the feast of Saint Willibrord (657-739) will say  "What shall I say of you, city of Tours ? You are small and contemptible by your walls, but great and worthy of praise by the patronage of Saint Martin. Who would come to you for yourself? Is it not rather because of his very sure intercession that crowds of Christians converge on you ?"

    Nancy Gauthier then writes that : "In the 5th century, the process is reversed thanks to Perpetuus, whose action will be stubbornly continued by his successors. Henceforth, it was Tours, under the impetus of its bishops, that ensured the promotion of Martin and his cult. He became the apostle and protector not only of Touraine but of all Gaul, a stature that, whatever Sulpice Severus claims, he had never had in his lifetime."

    A subterfuge by the Tourangeaux to lure Martin. 1) Martin did not want to be a bishop [Jean-Bruno Gassies, 1827, Collegiate Church of St. Martin of Colmar, "The Legend of St. Martin in the 19th Century" 1997]. 2) In order for him to come to Tours, an inhabitant, Rusticius / Ruricius, used the pretext that his wife was ill and asked to be helped [Couillard - Tanter 1986 + three pages on Martin's life in and around Tours : 1 2 3]. 3) He then implored Martin to forgive him... [Karl Girardet, engraving by Adolphe Gusmand, LTh&m 1855]. + same scene [Gobelins tapestry, Maupoix 2018].

    Clergymen greeted Martin with deference upon his arrival in Tours [Gebhard Fugel, 1910, Germany, Wikipedia], but others showed strong opposition [Nikto - Kline 1987] + the two plates : 1 2.

    Defensor, the bishop of Angers, and other prelates and notables opposed the election of Martin... [Brunor - Bar 2009]
    (+ two boards : 1 2) + The same scene by Maric - Frisano 1994 : 1 2 and board of BD Utrecht 2016.

    Riot at Turonis ! Another look at this election of Martin to the bishopric of Tours by John Loguevel in this page :
    "As with St. Ambroise in Milan, this election was held in a climate close to riot, and despite the opposition of
    Gallic-Roman nobles
    ". This is illustrated, above, in the comic strip by Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 + two plates : 1 2

    Martin is ordained bishop, the jubilant crowd on the left, the contrite bishops on the right [stained glass window in the church of La Translation de Saint Martin in La Chapelle sur Loire, Touraine, Amand Clément 1892]. + the same ordination on a miniature of sacramentary 1180 [BmT], on a painting of an altarpiece [musée de los Caminos in the episcopal palace of Astorga, Spain, flickr Santiago Abella], On a miniature of Jeanne de Montbaston [caption circa 1330, BnF] And on three stained glass  windows: 1 [circa 1315, church of Anctoville sur Bosq in Normandy, link] 2 [Olivier Durieux 1873 workshop in Reims, St Martin de Wimy church in Aisne, flickr Patrick] 3 where God is likened to the alpha and omega [1925, Grenoble workshop of Louis Balmet, church in Tournon Saint Martin in Indre, link]. .

    Martin is first and foremost the elected representative of the people of Touraine. To this, it is appropriate to add an essential caveat  isn't a city also made up of men and women ?
    Guy-Marie Oury begins his second volume of "La Touraine au fil des siècles" on the city of Tours (CLD 1977) with this sentence : "The decision taken in 371 by the Christian people of Tours to choose for bishop a ascot who already enjoyed a reputation as a thaumaturgist, in preference to a member of the clerical aristocracy, must have had incalculable consequences for the city." Indeed, at that time when the faithful democratically elected their bishop, it was the inhabitants of Tours who went to seek out the hermit in his retreat in Ligugé and brought him, against his original will, to occupy the episcopal see [+ story of Martin's arrival in Tours and his election, first page written by Jacques Fontaine of the collective book "Religious History of Touraine", CLD 1962] . Without them, Martin would not have become the evangelizer enabling the Gallic countryside to adopt the new religion which, before him and his followers, was only urban. In this respect, Martin's greatness was triggered by Tourangeaux. And even supported by all the Tourangeaux of the time, because it appears that the inhabitants of Turonis constantly supported their bishop Martinus. To the point, after his departure, of being very virulent against his successor Brice, forcing him to pack up and give him two replacements, the second Armentius finally relaunching the cult of Martin [thesis by Luce Pietri, see hereafter the chapter on Armentius]. For this, the first basilica should be considered that of Armence, supported by the Tourangeaux, and not that of Brice, driven out by them.

    Martin obtains the release of the prisoners of the governor / count of Tours Avitianus / Avitian (mistakenly named Aretian) [Maric - Frisano 1994] + two plates : 1 2. + the same scene in three plates by Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 : 1 2 3

    Conflict between the bishop and the governor of Tours. Pierre Audin, in his book "Tours à l'époque gallo-romaine" (in fact Gallic period under Roman occupation) [published by Alan Sutton in 2002], Pierre Audin tells : "Like the other bishops of his time, Martin considered himself the defender of the city. Thus, he did not hesitate to oppose the Count of Tours (or the III Lyon) Avitian, former governor of Africa and now loyal to the usurper emperor [for the Romans, not for the Gauls] Maximus. In this capacity, Avitian fiercely pursued in all cities the supporters of the late emperor Gratian, recently assassinated. Also, when he returned to Tours, after a long journey, followed by a cohort of prisoners (including probably simple debtors of the tax authorities, insolvent, and colonists on the run) whom he intended to have tortured, Martin went immediately to the palace. But it was night, and the doors were closed. Legend has it that the count, warned in his sleep by an angel, came himself to open the door of the palace (which was perhaps already in the northwest corner of the castrum, where in 869 the residence of the viscount of Tours was built before the construction of the count's castle). And Martin managed to convince Avitian and his tribune Dagridus to release the prisoners. Some time later, Martin entered the courtroom of the palace and, according to tradition, saw "a demon on the count's shoulders". He blew on him and made him disappear, which had the effect of making the cruel Avitian much more gentle. And if he does not seem to have converted to Christianity, his wife was Christian. In spite of her husband, she had not hesitated to have Martin bless a vial of oil intended to heal the sick."

    In her study of 1996 "Bishop Martin and the City of Tours," Nancy Gauthier finds lobbing repugnant to the one she considers a "slightly provocative original." She certainly recognizes that this Avitian episode shows that Martin is attentive to the Tourangeaux who elected him and conscientiously accomplishes his task as bishop. But "He is never seen to be concerned with the smooth running of the city of Tours or to be preoccupied with increasing its prestige or monumental finery. In this he differed from other bishops who, coming from the ruling class, quite naturally retained in the service of the Church the public service concerns they had sucked from the cradle. It was certainly a disappointment for a part at least of the Tourangeaux. But what Martin, concerned only with God and men, had not done for his city during his lifetime, he did after his death", under the impetus of Perpet, whose role appeared decisive both for Martin's reputation and the development of Tours... But would Perpet have existed without the prior action of Sulpice Severus?

  6. At Marmoutier, Sulpice Severus interviews Martin and it's a bestseller

    Marmoutier 1/3: where Martin retreats and settles. A year after his election, Martin, wishing to step back from his office as bishop and rediscover the retreat of the hermit surrounded by disciples, settled in Marmoutier, on the opposite bank of the Loire, upstream, about 2 km from the walls of Tours. The wooden bridge connecting the City to the opposite bank was still present and facilitated passage (this is bridge #2 according to the study by Jacques Seigne and Patrick Neury, Ta&m 2007, knowing that later, from the end of the 5th century to the beginning of the 10th, there was no more bridge...). While Sulpice Severus writes that Martin would have founded his monastery in a place that had "nothing to envy to the solitude of the desert", recent archaeological investigations show that this place was already the object of ancient occupation and had even been recently redeveloped when Martin chose to establish his monastery there... This is a proven example of Sulpice Severus' tendency to exaggerate. Martin lived in his hermitage until his death, surrounded by about 80 disciples. This is the beginning of a long history for this site, which hosted a powerful monastery a few centuries later, of which little remains.

    Martin prefers to get away from the city. [Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996] + three plates showing Martin's arrival in Tours and Marmoutier : 1 2 3. At right, illustration from Gebhard Fugel 1910.

    Martin at Marmoutier [Maric - Frisano 1994].

    Left plan: Marmoutier is about 2 km from the city of Tours, with direct access [diagram by Charles Lelong 1989, with the addition of the wooden bridge presented in the previous chapter]. In the center the cave known as "Le repos de saint Martin", entrance ["Histoire de la Touraine", Pierre Audin 2016] and interior [Fasc. NR 2012] + photo of exterior 1950 + postcard with interior photo. Even though the configuration of the place has changed a lot, Charles Lelong believes that this cave "did indeed shelter Martin's sleep". On the right extract from an Orthodox icon. + vitrail from the church of Saint Martin du Lac, in Burgundy, presenting Martin as a "friend of solitude" [flickr Odile Cognard]. See also Marmoutier 2/3 3/3.

    Interviews with Martin and his companions. The page dedicated to St. Martin on the Catholic website "New Evangelization" presents how the Aquitanian lawyer Sulpice Severus (363-410) met with Martin at Marmoutier and talked with him about his life : "Sometime after his conversion, Sulpice Severus came to Tours to visit St. Martin. [...]It is commonly believed that this first interview took place around the year 393. Sulpice was welcomed with the most touching testimonies of kindness and affection, on the part of Saint Martin. The humble bishop first thanked him for having undertaken such a long and arduous journey in his consideration. He made him sit at his table : favor that he rarely granted, especially to the great of the world. [...] Thus began for Sulpice Severus this sweet familiarity with our holy bishop, which made the honor and the consolation of his life. During his stay in Tours, Sulpice studied the life and virtues of St. Martin, as the best model to follow  already he had even conceived the plan to put in writing all that he had learned of the actions of our illustrious bishop. Never was a literary project more successful for a writer: posterity knows Sulpice Severus above all as the historian of Saint Martin. Although our holy prelate was in the habit of never speaking of himself, and of hiding the particular graces which God granted him, Sulpice nevertheless affirms that he learned from his own mouth some of the facts recounted in his history. Other features, along with many interesting circumstances, were revealed to him by the clerics of the Church of Tours or by the monks of Marmoutier. Few authors have had the same good fortune. Also his account can be considered entirely trustworthy, since it is constantly based on the report of eyewitnesses, when it does not reproduce the words, even of Saint Martin. "

    Martin and Sulpice in Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 + the plank.

    The same in BD Utrecht 2016 by Nico Stolk and Niels Bongers + two boards : 1 2.
    517, the Verona manuscript. On the right is an excerpt from the oldest known manuscript of the "Vita Martini", made by a man named Ursicinus, completed in August 517 (with a writing by Jerome of Stridon), in oncial, still preserved in the Chapter Library of Verona [Fasc. NR 2012]. In his study of the origins of the cult of St. Martin, Bruno Judic : "The Verona manuscript is today the oldest witness - by far - to the manuscript tradition. Its contents make it a "monastic" or ascetic collection and correspond to a strongly monastic and ascetic image of Martin. But such a manuscript presupposes the existence of other, earlier manuscripts that allowed the dissemination of this text to Verona."From 397 to 517, 120 years of multiple copies disappeared...

    The same in the Arte TV movie already featured (here-before). Three recent covers of the "Vita Martini" by Sulpice Severus (illustrations : Anonymous 15th century Budapest, Simone Martini circa 1325 in Assisi (original), Anonymous 12th Cambrai or Tournai).

    Sulpice Severus offers Martin extraordinary literary fame. Bruno Judic in a article from 2009 titled "The origins of the cult of St. Martin of Tours in the 5th and 6th centuries" shows the importance of the immediate success of the "Vita Martini" : "The cult of martyrs and saints starts from their tomb. In the case of Martin we also have this essential topographical aspect with the action of the bishops Perpetuus and Gregory. But it could well be that the primary factor in the rise of the Martinian cult was not the tomb but the Vita written by Sulpice Severus. It is indeed the diffusion of this text in Rome and Italy that alone can explain Martin's fame in the Roman and Italian context. This celebrity was perhaps so important that it would have somehow ended up reflecting on Gallic and Tourange circles." In this, Michel Fauquier calls him "the first modern saint," in a 2019 study. + report by Sulpice Severus himself (acting as if he were being addressed...) of the rapid and extraordinary worldwide (i.e., for the Mediterranean era) success of his work, which has somehow become a best-seller, as Joshua Peeters recounts in a double-case of DB Utrecht 2016. While Martin left nothing written and, not being an orator, left no speeches, Sulpice Severus made up, and in what way, for what could have been a handicap.

    What credibility to give to Sulpice Severus ?. The author of the Vita Martini was fascinated by Martin. He wanted to make him the Western reflection of Anthony the Great (251-356, apparently died at 105), the first hermit, in Egypt, father of Christian monasticism, going so far as to say that ": "With Martin alone, Europe can stand on the same level as Egypt". This may be the first use of the word Europe in a geographical sense. Many of the episodes he recounts were told to him by disciples who were also fascinated by the bishop of Tours. His work is a succession of marvelous episodes that it is difficult to believe at face value. Yet it is the raw material of what we know about Martin. Historians have therefore looked at it very carefully, especially Ernest-Charles Babut and Jacques Fontaine. This double-page spread by Charles Lelong in his book "Vie et culte de Saint Martin" (CLD 1990) is a testament to this. Bruno Judic, in this page of his 2009 study similarly concludes   "Like Babut, but with greater sympathy for Martin, Jacques Fontaine focuses above all on the text of Sulpice and starts from Sulpice. Like Babut, he evokes a possible share of fiction. But in the end he arrives at a very different result. Martin's historical truth emerges within the literary fiction. In this way, he can distinguish levels of stylization, that is, forms of literary convention." Pierre Courcelle, in a article from 1970 is very severe towards Severus : "Even if Sulpice has extenuating circumstances and if he preserves for us a precious " historical nucleus ", one cannot, I believe, evade making in the end his trial: did he not, in order to conciliate himself the mass of readers, melt and confuse sanctity with folklore? Isn't he one of the main people responsible for the invasion of the "wonderful" in the West? Didn't the very success of his book contribute to lowering the level of Christianity for ten centuries ? "

    In 396, in front of the cave at Marmoutier, Sulpice Severus presented the first version of his book to Martin, a year before his death at age 81 [painting by René-Théodore Berthon, 1822, Budapest Museum (in 1904 at Marmoutier), flickr Logan Isaac]. Analyzed in the Catalogue 2016 by Anna Tüskés, this painting is titled "Foundation of the Abbey of Marmoutier by Saint Martin". Martin, located on the right, is said to be consulting the plans for the future Marmoutier Abbey. This is implausible, because on the one hand he did not want to build a monument type abbey there and on the other hand he was dressed humbly like the character on the left. And, this one is 80 years old in 396, while the figure on the right is Sulpice's age, 33. So we have a superb representation of Sulpice showing Martin the first proof of his book. In fact the frame of the painting is reduced, a building is going up on the left and the artist wanted to show an allegory with a builder from a later century, Jean-Baptiste Guizol (1756-1828), showing to a rematerialized Martin the chapel he built on the ruins of the abbey bell tower. But the meeting of Sulpice and Martin is such a powerful symbol...
    Illustrations depicting Martin as a builder of Marmoutier (where he built no stone buildings), are quite common. Thus these seven stained glass windows : 1 1925 from the workshop Louis Balmet of Grenoble [Saint Martin's Church of Tournon Saint Martin in Indre, Verrière 2018] 2 John Hayward 1991, in St. Martin's Church in Brasted, England (+ in expanded) [flickr Jules & Jenny] 3 Lace Market Church in Nottingham, England [flickr Lawrence OP] 4 church in St. Florentin in the Yonne 5 church of Soulaire in Anjou (link) 6 [Etienne Lobin 1926 in the church of Ports sur Vienne, Martin supports the portal of the abbey (link] 7 Lorin de Chartres workshop 1947 for the reconstruction of the church of Saint Martin de Barentin in 1947 with an explicit caption "Saint Martin founding the monastery of Marmoutier" (link). .

    The Easy Reading of Sulpice Severus. The "Vita sancti Martini" / "Life of St. Martin" is a short document with easy reading : text of 16 pages, [link St. Martin's Community] + the version in Latin (link). + the letters and dialogues on the remacle site. The three letters and three dialogues are after Martin's death. The 2nd and 3rd dialogues give voice to a disciple of Martin's, Gallus, who tells what he knows about his master (+ article LM 2007-1 about a lecture by Jacques Fontaine, presented by Bruno Judic). They are thus meant to give another perspective than that of the Vita. + on a double page, a example of text analysis showing, through details, the veracity of the testimony (here Gallus), and the personality of Martin ["Saint Martin apostle of the poor", Olivier Guillot 2008]. + article by Sylvie Labarre 2004 titled "The composition of the Vita Martini of Sulpice Severus".

    Martin is historically true, unlike saints suspected of being fabricated. Even taking into account his silences, his exaggerations and those of his sources, Sulpice Severus wrote the biography of Martin in a serious way and in coherence with other sources. The character he presents therefore existed and lived through the episodes recounted, even if it means correcting them from Sulpice's oriented perception. This is a far cry from a character who emerged late, without a period writing, such as Gatian of Tours, already mentioned (see above), or Denis of Paris (who died in 258, he is not mentioned until around 520) or Jacques de Compostelle (mentioned in the Gospels and said to have gone to Spain, which is not known until after 600 or so), who can be considered mythical and without historical existence. Moreover, Sulpice tells us about life in Gaul at the end of the fourth century, a very precious testimony, taking into account again the corrections made by historians.

    Testimonials. Here are two examples proving the existence of Martin, outside of the writings of Sulpice Severus and religious writings. 1) It was found in Vienne (on the Rhone) the epitaph of a woman named Foedula buried in the early 5th century which recalls that she had been baptized by "his greatness Martin" [cited by Charles Lelong in 2000, details in the article by Jean Doignon 1961]. 2) Arte's 2016 documentary (see here-above) presents , at Ligugé, a tomb discovered in 1958 with an inscription showing it to be that of a young Visigoth of 10-12 years of age named Ariomeres, a pupil of the master Martin ("domini Martini"). According to a study by Francis Salet in 1961, he would have died in the 5th century, after 419, date of the arrival of the Visigoths, thus at least 20 years after the death of Martin, still considered the master [+ archaeological study by Carol Heitz, 1992].

    Among the questions, there is in particular a doubt about Martin's date of birth, 316 or 336, and the duration of his military service, 5 or 25 years. The usual long duration hypothesis (why would he have been engaged for only five years?), here taken into account, already adopted by Gregory of Tours, meets with a now very broad consensus. On this precise point, Sulpice Severus would have been right in writing that Martin was in his seventies in 385 and in having him pronounce this sentence before his death  "Lord, if you want me to serve again under your standard, I will forget my great age". He would also have been wrong in estimating that Martin would have done only five years of military service, wanting to minimize the long warlike episode (including after his baptism), unworthy of a bishop. Some Catholics tend to evade the subject, as on this page, or to opt for the short duration, as on a page of the site of the diocese of Tours, where, without indicating the date of birth, it is written : "At 18 years of age, he was baptized and shortly afterwards left the army". More surprisingly, among historians, Charles Lelong also defended the short duration. And, recently, Olivier Guillot and Dominique-Marie Dauzet. At the time, the average age of death was certainly low, but septuagenarians or octogenarians, although few in number, were not rare.

    Pierre Leveel, in The Martinian Letter 2006-1 (page 14) summarizes the conclusions of historians  thus: "Commentators agree that after his difficult induction, Martin remained for several years in a kind of adolescent military preparation, and that he was not poured into the militia armata until after the age of 20. Martin can only be seen as courageous and disciplined disciplined, faithful to the " military oaths ", avoiding however with skill to give pledges of worship in the religion which remained that of the majority of the Roman soldiers of the time. We understand, without a document proving it, that his conduct was appreciated by his superiors, who judged him worthy of access to a highly coveted corps: " It is under the emperor Constance that Martin passed from the regular troops into the elite corps that constituted the mounted imperial guard ". This doubt now lifted (1700th anniversary in 2016, not in 2036 !) on the date of birth raises another on the age of baptism, at 18 years, in Amiens after the sharing of the mantle, so in 334 / 335, not in 354 / 355. And it was not Hilaire who baptized Martin, as is sometimes represented, for example in a vitrail of Saint Florentin in Burgundy(1528).

    There is also a doubt about Martin's date of death. In a article from 1908 titled "Pauline of Nole, Sulpice Severus, St. Martin, Research on Chronology", Ernest-Charles Babut concludes that Martin probably did not die on November 8, 397 as generally agreed, but between November 396 and the death of Ambrose of Milan on April 4, 397 (March 397 seems most likely to him), thus almost a year earlier (see also hereafter the death of Ambrose). This was not subsequently retained, notably not André Chastagnol in a study from 1984 titled "Around the death of St. Martin" in which he holds the date of November 11, 397, to be certain. More generally, could what is true of the life of Martinus have passed through other than the writings of Sulpice Severus and some other historical landmarks ? By the names of places and the legends peddled ? On a personal note, with my experience as an amateur genealogist used to weighing the value of dates, reading the arguments exchanged on the date of birth of Martin convinced me of his birth in 316. On the other hand, for the death, I am not convinced. The arguments of Babut not appearing to me irrefutable and, not having found counter-arguments (I suppose that there are some...), I yield to the general opinion of November 8, 397.

    Paulin de Nole a link between Martin and Sulpice. Born into a wealthy Bordeaux family, Pauline of Nole (353-431) "had long been suffering from his eyes and the cataract was beginning to form when Martin touched his eyelids with a brush and the ailment magically disappeared" (link). Pauline became bishop of Nole, near Naples, in 409. It was he who taught Sulpice Severus "the existence of an outsized bishop at Tours" (link). Paulinus of Nole was one of the greatest Christian Latin poets (35 poems have been preserved from him). Another part of his work consists of long letters (49 have been preserved) written to great personalities of his time such as the poet Ausone, St. Jerome of Stridon, St. Augustine of Hippo, and thus Sulpice Severus. Paulinus also had a role in the dissemination of the work of Sulpice Severus, who himself writes in his dialogues : "He who first introduced your book into the city of Rome is your great friend Paulinus of Nole. There, in the whole city, people were snatching the volume. I saw there the booksellers exulting, declaring that nothing was for them a better business, that nothing was taken away more quickly and sold more expensively."

    Martin healing Pauline ["Martinellus" 1110, BmT]. Center-left Paulin in a stained glass window in Linz Cathedral (Austria). Center-right Paulinus preaching [link]. Right sanctus Paulinus in the present basilica extolling the merits of the book of Sulpice Severus [workshop Lorin]. + six other images of Paulin : 1 [calendar by Jacques Callot (1592-1635)] 2 3 4 (with the one who baptized him, Delphin, bishop of Bordeaux from about 380 to 403, corresponding with Sulpice Severus, link) 5 (Paulinus of Nole is said to have initiated the custom of having services announced by ringing bells) 6 [François Verdier, link].

    On the left, Sulpice Severus sends (to Paulinus of Nole?) a messenger bearing his book on Martin [BmT, initials ca. 1325]. In the center, Sulpice sees Martin in a dream and then learns of his death [Médiathèque Le Mans, 15th century, Maupoix 2018]. Sulpice had emulators who, over the centuries, wrote a life of St. Martin, such as Richer, abbot of St. Martin of Metz, in the 12th century. On the right, he writes under the inspiration of Sulpice, who presents him with his work [Epinal media library, Maupoix 2018].

  7. Martin and Ambrose of Milan: restraint in the face of the Priscillian heresy

    At the end of the fourth century, the Catholic Church, then called Nicene, had to fight another heresy, Priscillanism. A fight that did not allow any compromise, even more terrible than the one against Arianism, since for the first time, Christians murdered Christians. Martin of Tours took offense at this, along with another bishop, also famous, Ambrose of Milan. While Milan remained ruled by Rome, the people of Turonis and Martinus lived in Gaule. At this time, in the fourth century, it had shifting borders, depending either on the Roman Empire and its capital Rome, or, unofficially or officially governed from Trier, now in Germany, by Valentine I, from 364 to 375, by his son Gratian from 375 to 383, and then by Magnus Maximus from 383 to 388. Depending on the period, [Great] Island Britain and Spain can be added to the perimeter of Gaul, which goes back to the mouth of the Rhine.

    At Trier, Valentinian I receives Martin without rising, a soldier warns him that his seat is on fire... On the left, painting by Noël Hallé [Musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans, link], on the right stained glass window from the Church of St. Martin in Pau [excerpt from a rose window of 24 scenes on Martin, link]

    Three times, Martin challenges the emperor of Gaul. In his time, the bishop Martinus is already a very important figure, having an aura, listened to the greatest. He relies on them to strengthen his action, especially against arianism. Three times he went to Trier, the capital of Gaul, to meet with successive emperors, Valentinian I and twice with Magnus Maximus (see this page). The last two meetings would be delicate, as he objected to Maximus, with the agreement of the Byzantine emperor Leon I, executing, in Trier, the heretical bishop Priscillian and his main followers.

    Asceticism and luxury. Leaving his cave dwelling at Marmoutier with a few followers, the monk and bishop Martin goes to Trier to meet the emperor. Top center right, he begs for an interview [Luc-Olivier Merson, Lecoy 1881] in front of the Imperial Palace. At the top right, inspired by an angel, he finds a door to approach Valentinian [stained glass window in the church of Sorigny in Touraine, Lobin, + the door in full]. + vitrail from Tours Cathedral where the angel points to the door [bay #4, circa 1280, Verriere 2018]. The remaining illustrations are from the comic strip by Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996. + four plates featuring Martin's interview with the emperor of Gaul Maximus 1 2 3 4 (in this sequence, the three encounters are combined into one). + on the meal scene, broderie [New York Metropolotan Museum of Art, Maupoix 2018], vitrail from the Church of Saint Etienne in Tours circa 1870 [Lobin workshop, commentary Verrière 2018] and vitrail from Church of St. Martin de Nonancourt in the Eure (link).

    An original at the emperor's table. Martin was not afraid to trangress the customs, whether Gallic or Roman, of the lower people or the aristocracy. here at his first meeting with the emperor Maximus [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996] + the plank. On the right, the same three protagonists in a miniature of the "Martinellus" 1110 [BmT]. + the same scene in a fresco in the basement of the Tours basilica, see hereafter And in four stained glass  windows: 1 [St Martin de Nonancourt church in Normandy] 2 [Maréchal's workshop and Champigneulle, St. Martin's Church of Metz in Lorraine] 3 [church of Romilly sur Seine in the Aube] 4 [church of Sucy en Brie].

    In 385, Ithacus / Ithacius, bishop of Ossonoba, tried to convince Martin of the need to condemn Priscillian to death. [Brunor - Bar 2009] + two consecutive plates to this scene : 1 2 + link. This willingness of Martin to separate the affairs of state and church appears modern. Would he be a precursor to the law of 1905 ? Would Martin be a defender of the secularism ? An opponent of the inquisition ?

    Martin's moderation in the face of the Priscillian heresy. In 383, Magnus Maximus, known as Maximus, was proclaimed emperor by his troops from [Great Britain] and took power in Gaul and Spain. He reigned for five years until 388, placing himself in the Nicene orthodoxy, supporting in particular Ambrose, bishop of Milan against the Arians. At the same time, the bishop of Avila, in Spain, Priscillian (345-385) departed from Nicene principles in another way. He is a Christian mystic wanting to live a Christianity close to the origins according to a very personal vision. If, for his asceticism he is close to Martin, he moves away from him by relying on apocryphal books. A heated debate ensued that would lead, for the first time, to the murder of Christians by other Christians. His opponents, two Spanish bishops, Hydacius / Hydace and Ithacius / Ithace, played the role of accusers with determination, asking the emperor Maximus to put the heretic to death. Summoned to Trier, Priscillian is put in charge. Martin's intervention saved him momentarily, but he could do nothing when he was condemned to death for heresy in 385. He was beheaded in Trier, along with four other leaders of his movement. Priscillian was then venerated as a martyr by his followers, and after the fall of Maximus, the sect spread throughout Spain. His execution caused a rift among the Gallic bishops and Christian intellectuals. Ambrose of Milan sided with Martin of Tours, who refused to participate in other priestly assemblies. Augustine of Hippo and Jerome of Stridon support the condemnation. Eventually, the pope Sirice also protests the measure, the Roman emperor Theodosius I also, Hydatius and Ithacus leave their office as bishops. A century and a half later, in 563, by a swing of the pendulum, the council of Braga rehabilitates Ithace and condemns Priscillian very firmly. Under the influence of Hydace, who was more flexible than Ithace, and later Gregory of Tours, Martin's role in this Priscillian affair is marginalized.

    Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996 + two plates : 1 2

    The second meeting of Martin and Maxime [Brunor - Bar 2009] + the board.

    Two illustrations from the Lecoy 1881: "Saint Martin intercedes for the Priscillianists with the Emperor Maximus"
    by Joseph Blanc (+ version vitrail at the collegiate church of Saint Martin in Beaupréau, in Anjou, link),
    then comforted by a angel [reproduction of a illustration of the "Martinellus" 1110, BmT].

    In her book "Martin de Tours, Rencontre" (Bayard 1996), Régine Pernoud concludes thus on the Priscillian affair : "It has weighed heavily on Martin : with good reason because it has represented over the centuries, a permanent temptation to which the Church has not always been able to resist. It should be noted, moreover, that when she succumbed by instituting the Inquisition, this measure was not long in turning against her. [... Philip the Fair and the Templars ... Joan of Arc at the stake... the Inquisition in Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries...]It is significant to us that at these same times the pilgrimage of St. Martin, so frequented in previous centuries, was gradually deserted, that his tomb was then destroyed and his bones scattered. Perhaps even if it was totally unconscious, there was more than a coincidence?". If Martin knew how to draw a line in his intolerance (Arians, pagans, Priscillians), so as not to go as far as persecution, his fellow disciples of all times did not always know how to keep this measure. From intolerance comes violent exclusion.

    To the left Priscillian in chains (link). Then, Martin tries to prevent the beheading of Priscillian [painting from the Church of Saint-Martin of Maimbeville]. At right, Ramon Chao's 2004 book estimating that the remains of Priscillian are those attributed to James of Compostela

    Revelation: it would be the remains of Priscillian that would rest in the crypt of Santiago de Compostela !. It's even written on the page Priscillian's Wikipedia: "Priscillian has long been honored as a martyr, especially in Galicia, and in northern Portugal, where it is claimed that his body returned. Some historians like Philippe Martin [in his book "Les Secrets de saint Jacques-de-Compostelle", Vuibert 2018] consider that the body found in the ninth century and identified as that of Saint Jacques de Compostelle was in fact that of Priscillian". There is reason to doubt this, as the evidence is so thin, but, after all, it seems more plausible than attributing these remains to one of the twelve apostles... And it sounds like a snide revenge of Priscillian to his persecutors! In 2016, Diego Play Augusto, in a solid study titled "The burial place of Priscillian", believes that "Despite the appeal of this hypothesis, we have no reference that allows us to establish a relationship between Priscillian and the city of Santiago de Compostela" and he argues for proposing another place.

    In a article from 1913, René Massigli thought that Martin was very close to the Priscillians and had been directly targeted by a letter of Pope Sirice in 386-387 "wherein it is spoken of those monks of whom bishops are made, who are all stilted with pride and run to heresy." The author refutes the idea that Martin's prestige was due only to the writings of Sulpice Severus and Pauline of Nole  "As his quality as a monk was certainly not enough to distinguish him, we must admit that a special prestige, due no doubt to his personal gifts, surrounded him." + article by Charles Guignebert, from 1909, on a study by Ernest-Charles Babut dealing with Priscillianism + the chapter 'Martin and the Priscillianists' from Charles Lelong's book "Vie et culte de Saint Martin" (1990).

    Ambrose of Milan, an alter ego of Martin?. Ambrose, like Martin, was elected bishop (of Milan in 374) by popular will, against his own will and the will of neighboring bishops. Like Martin, he intervened to have Priscillian pardoned. However, unlike Martin, Ambrose was not an ascetic monk. Of very aristocratic origin (allowing to establish distant links of cousinship with Charlemagne : 1 2 3), He had the stature of a high political leader. He would have died on April 4, 397, after learning of Martin's death. There would then be reason to doubt that Martin died on November 8 of the same year, but rather in March 397, as Ernest-Charles Babut (see here-before), or even in November 396, unless the error comes from elsewhere... + text from Ambrose on Martin. The Priscillian affair revealed a Martin - Ambrose axis that acted as a counterweight to the bishops wanting to dominate the political authorities. After Christianity took hold, this was the first such crisis in Europe. There were many others since, in various forms, leaning to one side or the other... We shall see later, with Paulinus of Nole, Melania the Younger, Eustochius and Perpet that this concordance of views between Martin and Ambrose will allow the establishment of a Milan-Tours axis.

    Ambroise on the same page as Martin. On the left, stained glass window from the church of Saint Augustine in Paris uniting the two saints (Martin on the left). In the center, Ambrose having the revelation of Martin's death, priory of Saint Martin des Champs in Paris, painting by Félix Villé. Right, stained glass window from Bourges Cathedral, 1214, where Ambrose sprinkles holy water on Martin's body [Window 2018]. + two frescoes by Simone Martini in the Saint Martin's Chapel of Assisi on this dream of Ambrose, with narratives by Sulpice Severus and Gilles Berceville in the book "Saint martin of Tours" by Sulpice Severus translated by Jacques Fontaine published by Cerf 2016 : 1 2. + retable with Ambrose surrounded by Martin and Sebastian [Nicolo Corso, fifteenth century, Sabauda gallery in Turin, Italy, flickr jean louis mazieres]
    The brotherhood of Ambrose and Martin glorified in an altarpiece from Barcelona. The altarpiece of the two bishops was made by Juan Mates from 1411 to 1415 for Barcelona Cathedral. + two views already shown at the end of the chapter of the Priscillian affair, marked by the solidarity between Ambrose of Milan and Martin of Tours : 1: 2 + excerpts and two-page study of this altarpiece by Michel Maupoix in his Maupoix 2018 : 1 2.

    Two excerpts from a very old mosaic in the basilica of St. Ambrose in Milan [Wikipedia photo at center]. On the left, same scene as above center, Ambrose asleep sees Martin's death. On the right he is present at his funeral. This imposing mosaic, the central scene of the Milanese basilica, is here in its watercolor reproduction by Henri Toussaint for the book Lecoy 1881, which presents a accurate analysis of the work. The mosaic there is dated to the ninth, tenth or eleventh century, Wikipedia dates it to the sixth and eighth century, largely reworked in the eighteenth / nineteenth century. We can therefore assume that the themes treated in each scene come from the sixth century. + golden bas-relief at the high altar in the same basilica [9th century, Lecoy 1881].

    Sanctus Ambrosius under the dome of the present-day Basilica of Saint Martin in Tours.

  8. From Amboise to Candes, the evangelist Martin and the rural people of Touraine

    Tours and Touraine are at the crossroads of so-called Roman roads but in fact Gallic : "The general opinion that the Romans were the originators of the entire network of ancient roads in Gaul is not accurate" (link Wikipedia). On the left the road system of the Turons, in the center a period road near Tours ["L'Indre et Loire", Pierre Audin, Editions Bordessoules 1982, link]. On the right the table de Peutinger in Touraine ["Caesaroduno" in the center]. + two plates of Couillard - Tanter 1986 : 1 2 + other map (link).

    The evangelization of Touraine. The Tourangeaux and Tourangelles are both the inhabitants of Tours and those of Touraine. If the former were from the beginning acquired to Martin, the latter showed themselves reticent and attached to the ancestral cults. He who is called "the apostle of Gaul" was the first to evangelize the Gallic countryside and his multiple disciples continued his work for two or three centuries, the Frankish kingdoms being Christianized at the time. In his dissertation (cf. below), page 796, Luce Pietri presents a map of Christian monuments in Touraine in the sixth century. On pages 793 to 795, the rural churches created by bishops Martin (Langeais, Saunay, Amboise, Ciran la Latte, Tournon Saint Pierre, Candes + map C. Lelong 2000]), Brice (St Julien de Chédon, Brèches, Pont de Ruan, Brizay, Chinon), Eustoche (Reignac, Yzeures, Loches, Dolus), Perpet (Montlouis, Esvres, Mougon, Barrou, Balesmes, Vernou), Volusian (Manthelan), Injuriosus (St Germain sur Vienne, Neuillé *, Luzillé), Baud (Neuillé *), Euphrone (Thuré, Céré, Orbigny) and Gregoire (Artanne, Joué lès Tours, Mareuil sur Cher, Pernay, Le Petit Pressigny). * : Neuillé Pont Pierre or Neuillé le Lierre. + article by Elisabeth Zadora-Rio "Places, Spaces and Territories of Touraine" from the end of the fourth century to the end of the twelfth [Ta&m 2007].

    Amboise, the first church established by Martin. Ambacia / Vicus Ambatiensis / Amboise is the ancient capital of the Turons, from before the Roman conquest and the creation of Caesarodunum / Tours. "About 374, Martin sent one of his priests there, named Marcellus, and repeatedly recommended that this den of idolatry be destroyed. But an army aided by the entire population and thus even less by a few weak monks could not overthrow this imposing monument : a round tower built of ashlar and shaped like a pyramid. Tired of waiting, Martin went himself to Amboise. He spent a night praying. The next morning, a very powerful hurricane broke out and demolished the entire temple. "I know this from Marcellus, who witnessed it," said Sulpice Severus. Immediately, Martin had a church built in its place, perhaps on the site of the present-day church of Saint-Denis, and thus founded the first rural church in Touraine, as Gregory of Tours attests. Then came other parishes. They were located far from the diocesan capital, and were in fact spiritual relays directed by a cleric. Half of them were located on a river: Candes at the confluence of the Loire and the Vienne, Amboise and Langeais on the Loire. The other half is located on the plateau, two in the south, Ciran and Tournon Saint Pierre and one in the north, Saunay. " (document, pages 46, 47)

    The destruction of the temple of Amboise around 375 (beginning of Martin's episcopate) [Maric - Frisano 1994] + board + heritage interest of this temple [Mag. Touraine n°62, 1997]. The Church of Saint-Denis d'Amboise, perhaps built on the site of this temple, has a vitrail where Martin destroys an idol...

    The Martin Method. On the page titled "Who was Saint Martin ?", Jean Loguevel : "It has often been said that Saint Martin founded the rural parishes of France. This is a shortcut that is partly true, but that risks hiding the truth... As the very serious Jacques Fontaine and Luce Pietri, a remarkable historian from Tours, have very well observed, Saint Martin founded, at the time, a "new community" centered on prayer certainly, but, turned towards compassion and evangelization. The villages and countryside were evangelized by these missionaries. When conversions occur, a church or hermitage is founded on the spot and a small "branch" of the new community is left, made up of monks and converts. In time, it will become a "parish". Thus, "each one, whatever his state, whatever his mission, and in whatever part of the diocese he carries it out, retains the feeling of belonging to a community of which Martin is the Abbot as well as the Bishop". Indeed, it seems that Martin did not only gather monks, in the sense that this word has today. Around him, various forms of Christian life developed, committed and communitarian, as Paulinus of Nole and Sulpice Severus, great landowners of Aquitaine, testify. Once converted, these married notables formed lay and religious communities around them, living in the spirit of Saint Martin. This spirit refers first of all to love of neighbor (cf. the poor man in Amiens, and the man to whom he gives his clothes in the sacristy, even though he is a bishop, the kiss to the leper in Lutetia...). This spirit still includes compassion for the sick, evangelization, hope and trust in the infinite goodness of the Redeemer, recourse to prayer against the snares of the devil."

    To the left, "Saint Martin Preaching in the Woods of Touraine" by André Beauchant (1873-1958) (document, page 64) [MBAT]. On the right painting by Félix Villé (1819-1907) [Church of Saint Martin des Champs in Paris (link)] + on the same theme a tableau [Anonymous 17th century, Tours Cathedral, Maupoix 2018], a carved table of undetermined origin (link) And four stained glass  windows: 1 [church of Trémeheuc in Brittany] 2 [church of St Martin d'Olivet in Orléans (link) 3 [church in Acigné, near Rennes (link) 4 [Beverley Minster Church in England, flickr Gordon Plumb]. For this task, Martin is obeyed by the monks of Marmoutier, as shown in this vitrail from the church of St. Martin in Wimy in the Aisne [Nguyen DoDuc]. + image 20th century showing St. Martin and the role of monks and priests in leading the population. Below, stained glass window from the church of St. Martin de Ligugé [Maupoix 2018].

    To the left, after a violent storm calmed by Martin, a fountain springs up to wash his wounds [Saint Martin's Church of The White Chapel Saint Martin, Lobin workshop 1900/1912, link). On the right resurrection of a child [Saint Martin's Church in Marcilly en Gault, stained glass window by Julien Fournier 1895, link] + vitrail from the church of Saint Martin du Lac, in Burgundy, featuring Martin as the "apostle of the countryside" [flickr Odile Cognard].

    Exterior and interior of St. Laurent de Veigné Chapel, right chevet and holy spring.
    + three photos : 1 (the spring, behind the chapel) 2 (between sequoia and weeping willow) 3 (photo by Sylvie Clochard, May, 2021, P.-S.) . In many places in Touraine and elsewhere, the passage of Saint Martin, the original Martinus or a devoted continuator, is bathed in a hall of mystery, reinforced by the charm of the old stones. It is difficult to decide, let's take this example.
    Did Martin drink from the spring of the Saint Laurent de Veigné chapel ? It is located at least 10 km south of Tours, this leans towards a positive answer. Historian Pierre Audin provides further arguments in his 1997 study "Les fontaines martiniennes en Touraine" : "According to local tradition, a pagan edifice protected a sacred fountain, venerated by the surrounding population. Saint Martin came there and destroyed the aedicula, which he replaced, on the spring itself, with a modest wooden oratory "with a thatched roof", which he dedicated to Saint Laurent. This oratory was replaced around the 11th century by a stone building, rebuilt in the 16th century  this is the current chapel, disused since 1867. A small masonry aedicule shelters the spring, right against the apse of the chapel. Until the last war, the spring was frequented by patients suffering from dartars. Although the fountain is like the chapel dedicated to Lawrence, the site remains strongly imbued with the memory of St. Martin, whose name every pilgrim evoked." These words were repeated in 2017 in a article from La NR and on a page on the Monumentum website. The contradiction comes via the page Wikipedia : "This legend, probably based on an inscription present above the axial bay of the apse, must be taken with great caution. It is more likely that this inscription, almost illegible now, attributed the construction of the chapel to the chapter of Saint-Martin, in the Romanesque period." Another element lends credence to the first hypothesis : at the foot of the chapel flows the Saint Laurent stream, which then waters the park of the Château de Candé and it is because Martin would have blessed this stream (again the tradition....) that its owner had a tympanum made in ceramic of the sharing of the mantle adorning the entrance door of the square tower of the castle [Wikipedia], painted on enamel by Giuseppe Devers in 1857. + file.

    Partout in Touraine ? Albert Lecoy de la Marche, in his 1881 book, is one of those who extend Martin 's scope to the extreme: "We still find traces of Martin's passage in several other localities of his diocese, notably in Neuilly, where he raised by the virtue of the sign of the cross a fallen tree that was cluttering up the public highway, a tree from which the faithful later tore off the bark to make remedies for themselves ; at Martigny or Port-Martigny, near Tours, where he often went to pray in an oratory which still existed at the time of Gregory; at Notre-Dame de Rivière, an old dependency of Marmoutier, to which his visits made a celebrity; at Saint-Senoch, where a religious of this name found, with the ruins of Roman constructions, an old chapel also frequented by him, and restored it. It is probable that the holy pontiff did not leave in Touraine a single village, nor especially a single church, without bringing light or encouragement: a crowd of legends, piously preserved in the country, could come to support this proposal. We would like to have more details on the moral and material good that his presence produced, on the state of the nascent Christianity that his preaching had brought about in the Touraine countryside, on the progress or reforms brought about by his visits. His biographer, unfortunately, does not speak to us about it; dazzled by the brightness of his miracles, he neglects almost all the remainder, and deprives us of information which he must have certainly had, but which had in his eyes less price.". Even if it is true that Sulpice was far from being exhaustive, the modern historians, in particular Luce Pietri, are much more reserved on the consideration of these indices...

    With a background of Roman statue destruction, Martin evangelizes both the city dweller of Tours and the rural man of Touraine [Luc-Olivier Merson, Lecoy 1881, frontispiece]. At right, Martin preaches light and pushes back darkness [1987, church in Dolni Loucky in the Czech Republic, link].

    On the left, Martin, like an officer, gives instructions to his followers at Marmoutier [Maric - Frisano 1994]. On the right, after his death, he is shown as an example by a new evangelist [Master Francis 1460, BnF] + vitrail of a preach of Martin [St. Martin's Church in Lure in Burgundy] + still with the only spiritual presence of Martin, this tableau showing a preaching of St Martin at Siena in Italy [Sano di Pietro, LM 20018].

    Candes, the last stop on Martin's journey. At 81, Martin was still active. He and his followers had traveled some 50 miles to settle a quarrel among clerics in the town of Candes, now called Candes Saint Martin, where he had established a church. Ill, he died there on November 8, 397. Refusing to be buried on the spot or taken to Ligugé, his entourage in Touraine, in the middle of the night, stole Martin's body to bring it back to Tours by the Loire. On the passage of the boat, the vegetation would have bloomed again, the birds would have sung praises as a last homage, it became the summer of Saint Martin (another link). With a large crowd in attendance, Martin was buried on November 11. In this era of relic veneration (compounded by Helena, the mother of Constantine I, link), the act of keeping and remaining in control of the body of an already saint was not selfless, but it does testify, once again, to the attachment of the Tourangeaux to their bishop. Candes then honored Martin, who had raised a church there dedicated to Saint Maurice, with an imposing collégiale Saint Martin, from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, classified as a historical monument since 1840, with a rich decoration, especially in its entrance. + article by Paul Antin 1964 "La mort de saint Martin".

    The death of Martin at Candes on November 8, 397. At left, vitrail by Lux Fournier 1955 [church in Beaumont la Ronce in Touraine, Verrière 2018]. On the right box of Maric - Frisano 1994 + two boards : 1 2 + plank of Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996. + engraving [LTa&m 1845] + engraving on a drawing by Jacques-Emile Lafon [Lecoy 1881]. + two frescoes : 1 Simone Martini in the Chapel of St. Martin in Assisi, circa 1325 2 Johannes Aquila 1392 in the church of Martjanci in Slovenia (link). + seven paintings : 1 [Fidelis Schabet 1846 in the church of St. Martin in Unteressendorf, Germany, Wikimedia] 2 [István Dorfmeister, Hungary] 3 [Gebhard Fugel, 1910, Germany, Wikipedia] 4 [anonymous French 18th century] 5 [abbaye Notre Dame d'Evron in Mayenne, flickr Logan Isaac] 6 [16th century, Master of St Lazarus, Valencia] 7 [musée de los Caminos in the episcopal palace of Astorga in Spain, flickr Santiago Abella] + six stained glass windows : 1 Church of St. Martin the Great in York, Great Britain, 1437 [flickr Lawrence OP] 2 Church of St Martin in Vendhuile in Picardy (link) 3 [St Martin's Church in Ammerschwihr in Alsace] 4 [Olivier Durieux 1873 workshop in Reims, St Martin de Wimy church in Aisne, flickr Patrick] 5 [St Denis d'Amboise church, Lobin workshop circa 1870, Verriere 2018] 6 church in Metz, Lorraine [Maréchal workshop and Champigneulle, Nguyen DoDuc]. + two illustrations from Semur 2015 : 1 (stained glass window in the church of St. Etienne in Chinon, Lobin workshop (+ its double very close by in the church of St. Patrice, in Touraine, link) 2 (banner from the church of Saint Martin de Landivy in Mayenne).
    Non recuso laborem. Martin's words spoken before he died "Non recuso laborem" ("I do not refuse toil") refer to the strength of character that must be shown in adversity. They have gained some fame, as evidenced by this fresco from 1864 in the church of St. Brice in Montbazon in Touraine or this vitrail from the Ampleforth Abbey in England [flickr Lawrence OP] or this image of undetermined origin [flickr Monceau]. + five coats of arms or logos : 1 commune of Viviers lès Montagnes in the Tarn 2 college in Dover in England (link) 3 St. Martin's College in Balacain in the Philippines (link) 4 St. Martin de Tours Institution in Buenos Aires in Argentina (link) (also a high relief from the Agustinana Library in that city, link) 5 St. Martin's School in Johannesburg in South Africa (link). Many bishops also display this motto on their coat of arms, such as that of the aptly named Bishop Aron Marton of Transylvania in Hungary (link). Another sentence is related to Martin and his dream  "Quod uni ex minimis meis fecistis, mihi fecistis", which can be translated as "What you do to the least among my people, you do to me". It is on this vitrail [Jozef Mehoffer, Freiburg Cathedral in Germany, Nhuan DoDuc]. <

    To the left, Martin's body being evacuated through a window [Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996] + the last two plates: : 1 2. + the same scene in a engraving depicting a vitrail from Candes [Lecoy 1881, after a drawing by Claudius Lavergne]. Right return of the body to Tours by the Loire, engraving by Luc-Olivier Merson [Lecoy 1881 + sketch, Musée de Moulins] + fresco of the same boat, from the rear angle, by Gebhard Fugel 1910 (Germany) [Wikipedia]. + engraving [LTh&m 1855]. In the center the evacuation and return [sacramental lettering 1180 BmT] + its engraving in Lecoy 1881 + two stained glass windows : 1 [cath. Chartres, flickr Paco Barranco] 2 [church St Martin de Fresnay, Normandy, link].

    Photos of the Collegiate Church of Candes (link left photo) + page on Candes + photo in side view + photo in aerial view + six photos of the sets : 1 2 3 4 5 6 + engraving 19th century with a "Loire River steamer" in the foreground ["History of Touraine" Pierre Leveel 1988] +  three engravings LTh&m 1855 : 1 2 3 + three more prints : 1 [Lecoy 1881] 2 [Robida 1892] 3 [Bedel 1835] + one page from Magazine de la Touraine #63 (1997) showing that the collegiate church was a fortress church. + four illustrations from the thesis by Claude Boissenot 2011 (699 pages, 22 MB) : 1 2 3. + extract from a flyer introducing the collegiate church. Opposite stained glass window from Claudius Lavergne 1860.

    Where Martin would have died...
    Candes saint Martin: a beautiful collegiate church in a beautiful village on the banks of a beautiful river : it is a photographer's delight. Here are twelve shots all from the flickr  platform: 1 [Remi Marchand] 2 [Ivan Nadador] 3 [Ella] 4 [Guy Moll 2018, guymoll] 5 [Brian Dunning] 6 [jerome Beaulinette] 7 [France3744] 8 [Michel Purën] 9 [Florent] 10 [Jean-Loïc Marescot] 11 [Luc Méaille] 12 [Jean Christophe Coutand-Méheut] and below [Ludovic Grenu] :

    Has the place where Martin died been preserved? It is possible, according to Bertrand Lesoing's article in the Collective 2019 : "The late twelfth-century building is built on a particularly inconvenient site, marked by a steep decline. Several developments were necessary to overcome this natural obstacle. One may wonder if the decision to build a building of such magnitude on such a rugged site is not explained by the desire to preserve, to use Gregory's expression, the holy place, keeping the memory of the last moments of Martin." The same article explains that the collegiate church depended on the archbishopric of Tours and not on the collegiate church of Saint Martin of Tours. Thus the episcopal authority, pushed back on the holy places of Tours and Marmoutier, was exercised on another Martinian sanctuary charged with symbolic force.

  9. Martin bagaude apostle sacker of the Gallic heritage

    Left "At the time of the barbarian kingdoms", series "The private lives of men", Hachette 1984, drawing Pierre Joubert
    Center and right, "History of Brittany," texts Reynald Secher, drawings René le Honzec, volume 1 RSE 1991

    The Bagauan Revolts. From the 3rd to the 5th century, Gaul was plagued by a latent civil war that saw large rural parts of its territory (up to two-fifths) refuse to pay the emperor's tax and live in various ways, including autarky and brigandage. This is called the bagaudes, the insurgents are the bagaudés. This phenomenon has important consequences for the security of the country, also very threatened by the Barbarians. It is indeed difficult to maintain an army when the taxes come in badly. Around 450, Attila tried in vain to rely on the Bagaudes, who, in extremis, had rallied to his enemy Aetius. The fever had subsided, but the bagaudes remained (this is debated, Isabelle Drouin, in her memoir 2010 "The Bagaude identity in the third and fourth century" believes that there were non-bagaudes brigands, a tenuous difference...). They would only disappear with the arrival of the Franks around the year 500, earlier in Touraine, around 448 according to Luce Pietri [her thesis, page 103]. The Bagauan state of mind was therefore still present when Martin became bishop in 371. Before that, he had also encountered a Bagaude, in the Alps. This is the episode known as "of the brigands" thus summarized for the first illustration below : "While crossing the Alps, Martin went astray and came upon some brigands. His arms in a cross, he was tied by the wrists to a tree, one man raised an axe over him which another held  a third, with a spear in his hand, stood by him. Left alone with one of the bandits, he will convert him." .

    Martin victim of bagaude brigands. Top left, miniature of the "Martinellus" 1110 [BmT]. Bottom left, stained glass window from Chartres Cathedral (link), close to the stained glass window from Bourges Cathedral, with the stained glass window from Tours Cathedral (bay 204) being more different and more violent. + six other stained glass windows : 1 [church of St Martin de Les Bordes in Orléans] 2 [Michel Foucher, church of Villy en Auxois in Bourgogne] 3 [church of Saint Florentin in Yonne] 4 [collegiate church St Martin de Colmar in Alsace] 5 [St Martin's church in Wimy in Aisne] 6 [Beverley Minster Church in England, flickr Gordon Plumb] + tableau of the Basilica of St. Martin in Treviso in Italy [LM 2009-1]. At right top, excerpt from the same scene by Mestrallet - Fagot - d'Esme 1996 + two plates : 1 2. At bottom right, another excerpt by Brunor - Bar 2009 + two boards : 1 2. + plank of the same scene by Maric - Frisano 1994 + by Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 : 1 2.

    Maurice Bouvier-Ajam, in "Les empereurs gaulois", 1984, believes that Martin is well received in Bagald : "The evangelists are obviously better received and listened to in Bagald country. Saint Martin (316-397), this Pannonian soldier who leaves the Roman army to enter "the army of Christ," this ascetic who will become, in spite of himself, bishop of Tours, this humble man who makes the powerful tremble, is and wants to be the apostle of the poor and the disinherited. In Amiens, in the middle of winter, he split his coat in two to cover the shoulders of a poor man. He denounces the survivals of paganism as responsible for social oppression and does not spare his criticism to the "lord bishops" too rich and too proud of the great cities". In a country subjected for centuries to Roman oppression, regularly shaken by revolts, in a territory divided by Bagaude separatism, the destruction of Roman statues and Roman temples was welcomed as a relief, even if it was accompanied by the rejection of Celto-Gauloises beliefs, admittedly less (officially) vivid and omnipresent.

    Eradicate the old beliefs to impose his own. This desire to start afresh, to change civilization, to retain nothing of the past leads Martin to destroy the representations of the past that he considered "consecrated to the devil" (Sulpice Severus V.2 13.1). In a chapter titled "Saint Martin energetically Christianizes the countryside", Pierre Audin writes in his book "Histoire de la Touraine" (Geste Editions, 2016) that Bishop Martinus mounted expeditions "against the pagan temples that remained in the region, while performing miracles and Christianizing the sacred fountains of the Gauls : He intervened thus in Candes, in Tournon Saint Pierre and in Saunay, three villages at the limits of his diocese where he built a church after having destroyed the temple. In Amboise, Martin overturned a votive column...".

    The facts of this type were multiple, Langeais, Amboise, Levroux, Chisseaux, Autun, Châtres... Arthur Auguste Beugnot in his "History of the Destruction of Paganism in the West" (1835) (link), relying on the "Vita Martini" of Sulpice Severus  "Martin deployed in the two provinces he had chosen for the theater of his exploits a bellicose ardor that only ceased with his life". Luce Pietri, in the 1997 colloquium in Tours dedicated to Martin attributes to him a military strategy where "at the side of the leader each soldier fights according to his rank on the battlefield"  "For Martin declared war on the temples, with their destruction as his first objective. Whenever he could, he tried to convert the peasants first by his preaching and thus bring them by persuasion to overthrow the pagan shrines themselves. But he comes up against in many cases the resistance of the rural people attached to the gods of their ancestors  and it is thus on the contrary by a demonstration of power, in a test of strength at the end of which must burst the superiority of the God of the Christians on the idols, that he intends to strike the spirits and bring them to the law of Christ."

    Left and right, woodcuts. A pagan idol is decapitated [17th century, link], a sacred tree is cut down (link). In the center, stained glass window made in 2003 by Norbert Pagé (1938-2012) in the church of Saint-Martin in Marcé-sur-Esves featuring "Martin evangelizing the countryside by burning the temples of the false gods" (link). + tableau by Franz Anton Zeiller 1753 in St. Martin's Church in Sachsenried, Germany (link) + scene formerly embroidered in the Basilica of Saint Martin in Liege, 14th century. .

    This beautiful stained glass window (Lobin workshop, 1904) from the church of La Chapelle Blanche Saint Martin (in Touraine) exalts the destruction of a beautiful temple and a beautiful tree with the encouragement of gentle little warrior angels... (links : 1 2). On the pediment of the temple being demolished the inscription Tarvos Trigaranos refers to a Celtic/Gaulic god, represented by a bull accompanied by three cranes (+ modele of the image of the pediment, link).
    A merciful rampage? On the video of this page, Bruno Judic tries to put the brutality of these two scenes into perspective, hoping to convince that there is not violence there, but mercy... This is an opportunity to point out that Martin is often called "the merciful", especially in the Orthodox church  on this subject, one might read this document by David Gilbert (link) (which does not consider demolitions and slaughter as examples of mercy).
    The pile of Cinq-Mars, the only surviving Gallic monument in Touraine, illustration at right. There remains in Touraine, on the banks of the Loire, 20 km downstream from Tours, a late 2nd or early 3rd century tower, 30 meters high : the pile of Cinq-Mars, which, fortunately, was not a pagan temple... But, later, it was believed since in the Middle Ages they tried to dedicate it to Saint Nicolas... {J.-M. Couderc "La Touraine insolite" 1, 1989]. + illustration [Gaignières 1699 collection]. + engraving [LTh&m 1855] + engraving ["La Touraine", Maurice Bedel 1835] + page Wikimedia + link RACF. Let us also point out, but without the slightest hint of religious use, largely destroyed but with beautiful remains, the aquaduct of Luynes, a little upstream from Cinq-Mars (photo circa 1990). + two illustrations from the book "recueil d'antiquités dans les Gaules" 1770 by Félix Le Royer de La Sauvagère ("ancestor of all antiquarians" ?) (link) : 1 the pile 2 the aqueduct (the author believed at the time that Caesarodunum could be located in Luynes...). As a roughly reconstructable vestige, there remains the pile of Yzeures sur Creuse, blocks of which were found in the foundations of a church. And that's about it.

    A violent proselytizing. Gallic heritage, whether religiously built (so-called "pagan" temples), religiously statuary (designated as "idols") or arboreal (ancestral trees with the misfortune of being sacred) is the target of Martin and his followers. Only their god must exist, the others must disappear. Of the Gallic temples called fana (fanum in the singular), only the underpinnings remain. There are nearly 700 that have left traces, as Yves de Kisch shows in a 4-page article in "Science et Vie Hors Série No. 224 of 2003 (here the first double page). This patrimonial disaster set in motion by Martin in Gaul is rarely highlighted. I have found only one mention of it, in an article, unsigned, in Magazine de la Touraine #62, in 1997. Historians, in their writings, seem to ignore it. As for being concerned about trees...

    Churches built over temples. Camille Jullian, in "Histoire de la Gaule", 1920, an admirer of the one he names "the main hero of triumphant Christianity", confirms by giving him reason : "He stopped in the villages, went straight to the pagan temple with the troop of his disciples, summoned or roused the people, preached with his customary vigor, it was often the sudden and spontaneous conversion of the crowd, the temple attacked, the idols torn to pieces, the walls overturned, the sacred pines felled. But sometimes, when the peasants were recalcitrant, there were real battles, and perhaps the emperor's soldiers rushed to assist the bishop. As an apostle, Martin was less interested in convincing than in winning, and he was not interested in the freedom of conscience. But he only destroyed in order to rebuild at once. Christian oratories rose on the ruins of the temples  priests of Marmoutier were left to serve them  and the devotees of the villages, instead of being obliged with long races to go to adore their new God in the episcopal church, would bring to him their prayers and their wishes by the familiar ways of the soil and the traditional places of their assemblies  one had changed the nature of their divinity, but one had not touched the paths and the places of worship.". Sometimes, clues support this assessment, as at Mount Beuvray, in the Morvan according to this story extracted from the page titled "The end of Paganism in Gaul, the Temples replaced by the churches". However, in the 2015 Historia Special No. 24, Bruno Dumézil tempers this judgment for major monuments  "In reality, the establishment of a church in an ancient sanctuary represents a rare phenomenon. First of all, Roman laws stipulate that all major temples belong to the emperor. However, the emperor had little desire to alienate his real estate. Then one must consider the architecture of the place. A pagan temple was designed to house the statue of the god; in this narrow space, dedicated to silence, crowds had no place. Conversely, Christian assemblies require spacious buildings and good acoustics." This seems unconvincing, as the temple appears destroyed, keeping only its foundations on which the church is built with the original materials, in a new configuration. Gregory the Great, pope from 590 to 604, even wrote  "It is necessary that the sanctuaries devoted to the worship of false gods be devoted to the true worship, so that the converted pagans worship him in the very places where they used to come."

    Vitré (Ile et Vilaine) (link).

    Condat sur Trincou (Dordogne), 2nd century (link)

    Origin unknown (link)
    Here, in a few sculptures that escaped destruction, is an easily recognizable "pagan idol", the Gallic three-headed god (past, present and future ?). This deity is said to have been hijacked by the Catholic Church to represent the Trinity in "trifons", see this page or this one. To learn more about the Gallic gods, refer to page by Jean-Louis Brunaux titled "La religion gauloise".

    Martin Outlaw. Certainly, the Caesars and emperors ruling Gaul from Constantine I onward were Christians (except Julian from 355 to 363), certainly the emperor Gratian had proceeded between 375 and 383 to the separation of paganism and the state, certainly, on November 8, 392 (Martin was 76 years old), the emperor Theodosius had prohibited the practice of paganism in the entire empire. But, even if in the countryside the bagaudes had blurred the Roman domination, destroying the property of others, private or public, was reprehensible at that time when Roman law was applied. Albert Lecoy de la Marche recognizes this  "Saint Martin had neither warrant nor license ; he was violating the laws of his time" [Lecoy 1881, page 335]. So it was as an outlaw, as a bagel brigand, that Martin behaved, destroying in the name of his god, as the conquistadores did centuries later when they conquered America. It was necessary that the Gallic culture disappeared so that the Christian ideology was imposed. The humility and persuasion of Martin and his followers, supported at times by acts of firmness and brutality, were more effective than armed operations.

    Destruction of a Temple of Jupiter [Luc-Olivier Merson, Lecoy 1881] (the author was inspired by the statue of Zeus / Olympian Jupiter by Phidias, illustrated in 1815 by Quatremère de Quincy). + on the same theme, illustration of undetermined origin (link), + picture of Felix Villé in the church of Saint Martin des Champs in Paris, + vitrail from the church of Noyers sur Cher, Loir et Cher [Julien Fournier 1886, Geneste 2018]. + two stained glass windows of temple destruction : 1 [Romilly sur Seine in the Aube] 2 [Nonancourt, in Normandy].

    The Catholic Church ignores or hides this dark side of Martin. In the book "Saint Martin XVIth Centenary" (CLD 196), Guy-Marie Oury, a monk of Solesme, exaggeratedly minimizes  "The campaign of destruction would only cover five or six years of Martin's episcopate, those experienced by Sulpice Severus. When Martin, at the end of his life, orders a destruction, it is because the imperial laws require it and the public authorities have received orders in this regard". So during the first 21 years of his episcopate, there would be no destruction, then under the pretext of a ban on worship, Martin, would have traveled the countryside to destroy the temples, which goes far beyond the refusal of paganism ... The law of November 8, 392 (text correct, link) did not recommend destroying temples or cutting down trees at all. It did not question the freedom of conscience. It was not until 435 that Theodosius II, ruling over the Eastern Empire, grandson of Theodosius I (the last to rule the East and West), decided to destroy all pagan temples and even then, in the East, this was only done in an ad hoc manner because of "individual initiatives and not the application of general laws", the process of degradation being long [Catherine Saliou, "Le proche-orient", Belin 2020]. It was indeed by his personal initiative, freeing himself from the laws and ordinary behavior that Martin, certainly as a precursor, certainly often, probably, with the silent support of the authorities in place, practiced an energetic proselytizing called evangelization.

    In doing so, Martin was a vector of Christianization of the Bagaudes. He was certainly not the first, as Maurice and his legionaries were massacred for refusing to quell a Christian Bagald revolt (recall : story illustrated, link), but this was only widespread from Martin onward. He provided the impetus for the Christianization of the countryside under episcopal control and energy. The following anecdote, related by Bruno Pottier, is characteristic  "The cult dedicated to a bandit near Tours suppressed by Martin around 370 may have actually been dedicated to a Bagaude chief from the time of Amandus and Aelianus or to a famous local brigand. The continuation of Celtic-inspired practices of heroic cults in Late Antique Gaul would indeed not be surprising. A relative parallel to another region of the Empire can be evoked. Nicetas, bishop of Remesiana in the Balkan country of the Besses, mentions at the end of the fourth century, among the local pagan errors, the cult paid to a peasant for his exceptional strength. The suppression of a cult dedicated to a bandit allowed Martin to impose the exclusivity of his patronage on the local population during a period marked by strong social unrest. Martin of Tours in fact intervened on several occasions around 370 to protect the population of his diocese from the abuses of officials."

    Maurice Bouvier-Ajam goes in the same direction : "Thanks to him and his followers, the "good word" is heard from the Bagaudes, strengthens them in their will to independence, but softens their morals, sometimes decides them to accept a certain frugality and to renounce profitable expeditions. The Bagaude church became eminently popular, charitable, the priest being close to his flock, a moral guide, a source of comfort, an educator of children and often of adults. Despite the serious troubles that will generate heresies, it will not contribute little to gradually policing the Barbarians."

    Depending on one's point of view, one will therefore approve or not that "his "auctoritas" was constructive" (Christine Delaplace in "Histoire des Gaules"). As far as Saint Martin is concerned, in the face of Christian evidence, pagan opinion is too often ignored by historians. It should be taken into account, however, that Celtic traditions had already faded during the first centuries of Roman rule. In his study "Can we speak of popular revolts in Late Antiquity ?", Bruno Pottier [15 chapter 30] points this out in relation to a debate among scholars concerning the persistence of Druidism in Late Antiquity : "This debate, however, has been poorly posed. It has indeed focused mainly on the possibility of the existence in Gaul in the third and fourth centuries of real druids, comparable to those known for the Iron Age. This is highly unlikely, given the absence of relative testimonies between the first century and the time of Ausone. Linking this Bordeaux rhetorician, Phoebicius, to a line of Armorican druids only shows the intellectual prestige that could be achieved by an individual claiming such a tradition."

    For Bruno Pottier Martin's uncompromising attitude toward Celtic traditions was not shared by all of his Christian contemporaries, moderate (such as Ausone 309-394) or religiously uncommitted (such as Eutropius who died around 390) [15 chap. 34] : "Eutropius thus marked a marked interest in Celtic peasant traditions. He seems to have been curious like Ausone about Celtic cultural traits. He could thus understand, without justifying it, the strange taking up of arms by the Bagaudes." In this, one cannot say that Martin was acting in conformity with the state of mind of the time. He could be considered an "extremist" of the Christian faith...

    On the left, Saint Martin orders pagans to cut down a sacred tree [sacramentary of the Basilica of Saint Martin, circa 1180, BmT, Histoire de la Touraine by Pierre Audin [Le Geste, 2016)]. In the center, the tree dedicated to Cybele has fallen on the peasants, who lie stunned. The one on the ground armed with a sword, showed the violent opposition to Martin's evangelization. [vitrail from Chartres Cathedral, link]. + four other stained glass windows : 1 Angers Cathedral [Maupoix 2018] 2 church of Varennes in Ile de France [Musée de Cluny in Paris, Catalogue 2016] 3 church of St Martin de Chagny in Burgundy [flickr Odile Cognard] 4 church of St Martin de Ammerschwihr in Alsace [Nguyen DoDuc]. On the right, Martin imagines demons to eradicate Gallic beliefs [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]. + The same "pine miracle" on a tympanum of the Basilica of St Martin d'Ainay in Lyon, on a chapel 1120 of the basilica of Vézelay in the Yonne [Lorincz 2001], on a table by Franz Anton Zeiller 1743 [library of the abbey of Pannonhalma in Hungary Lorincz 2001], on a paper from the Angers cathedral treasury and on a reliquary from the abbey of Maredsous in Belgium (link)

    A seminal precursor. The bishop of Tours had an influence far beyond the Turon people, as Christine Delaplace, in "Histoire des Gaules", 2016  points out: "Bishops, monks, missionary hermits, all took up, with more or less zeal and thaumaturgical gifts, the example of Martin in the countryside of the Tours diocese. Christianization first of all involved the eradication of pagan customs. The struggle, always spectacular and miraculous, of the evangelist with the demons, provoked collective conversions and the destruction of pagan temples. This first stage of Christianization continued until the sixth century in certain remote areas, if we judge by certain episodes of hermits' lives reported by Gregory of Tours". An anathema was even issued at the Council of Arles in 451, bringing together 44 bishops  "If in the jurisdiction of any bishop, infidels light torches, or worship trees, fountains, or stones  if the bishop neglects to destroy these objects of idolatry, let him know that he is guilty of sacrilege. If the lord or ordainer of these superstitious practices will not correct himself, after being warned, let him be deprived of communion."

    Martin, the one who calmed the bagaudes? During Martin's episcopate, the bagaudes were strong, without all of them breaking with the central power. Notably Magnus Maximus, the Augustus of the Gauls from 383 to 388, whom Martin met twice, has a "wise administration ; he removes the incapable administrators that Gratian had appointed ; he renounces any exaction, any excessive pressurization  he is popular even in the bagaude countries" [Bouvier-Ajam]. These years of lull will cease three years before the death of Martin : "At the death of Theodosius the Great, thus at the dawn of the year 395, the Bagaude reaches in Gaul its most considerable extent and will preserve it more or less until the generalization of the Frankish installation, which it will facilitate more than it will disturb". The Gauls of Bagalda, the Barbarians and the Christians, although initially very different, had as a common desire the fall of the Roman Empire. They only really succeeded by uniting and they did so under the aegis of Christianity. Was it under the impulse of Martin for the Bagaudés, and, as we shall see later, under that of Clotilde, the Burgundian married to a Frank, for the Barbarians? The phenomenon is complex, because the Romans became Christians before the Gauls and the Barbarians, without succeeding in controlling the situation. As Bouvier-Ajam has just indicated, the Gauls of bagaude accepted the Spaniard Magnus Maximus and refused the Roman Theodosius, both Christians. The aversion towards the Roman imperialism will allow an appeasement only after its fall. With a century and a half of hindsight, in 566, the participants of the Council of Tours went so far as to write, in a letter addressed to Queen Radegonde : "Before St. Martin the faith brought to Gaul, from the very beginning of Christianity, had few followers, but his preaching alone made as many conversions as that of the apostles in the whole universe" [link]. It was as a vanguard officer-preacher that Martin participated in the birth of a new European order.

    St. Remi Museum in Rheims (link), Bavay (North) 2nd century (link), Valliège (near Evian) (link)

  10. The religious echo of the Martinian miracles

    Would Martin have evangelized without a miracle? Or is it because he evangelized that Martin performed miracles?

    His first great miracle: he resurrects a dead man. We have already seen several of Martin's miracles, some of which, like the sharing of the cloak, despite scene 2 of Martin's dream, may not be understood as true miracles. The first one to be really understood is the most spectacular one: bringing a dead man back to life. It had a strong repercussion, Martin was considered from then on as a saint. This happened while he was an exorcist in the abbey of Ligugé. According to Sulpice Severus :"One day, it is said, St. Martin having had to be absent, a young sick catechumen had asked to be baptized urgently. Martin's companions had procrastinated so much in going to get him that the young man had died without receiving the sacrament. When Martin returned, he began to weep, and then he led everyone out of the cell where the body lay. Left alone, he prayed with such trust and love that two hours later the Lord allowed a kind of transfusion of life between the living and the dead. The deceased opened his eyes, moved his limbs, straightened up and came back to life.".

    The Resurrection of the Catechumen. On the left the scene in a 13th century stained glass window in the Cathedral of Saint Gatien in Tours (bay #4) (the close-up is superb) + its copy by Lucien-Léppold Lobin, 600 years later (1873) for the church in Rigny-Ussé in Touraine [Verriere 2018]. At center, "Saint Martin Resurrects a Catechumen" by Félix Villé, Church of Saint Martin des Champs, Paris (link). At right, stained glass window by Auguste Labouret [Saint Martin de Ligugé Church, link]. + tableau in apotheosis by Godfried Maes [1687, church St. Martin's of Aalst, in Belgium] + fresco by Paul and Albert Lemasson, 1925, in the church of Saint Martin du Cellier (link) + three stained glass windows : 1 [Amand Clément, church of Continvoir in Touraine, Gallery 2018] 2 [Louis-Victor Gesta in the Church of Saint Martin de Biscarosse, link] 3 [St. Martin the Great Church in the city of York, England, flickr Gordon Plumb].

    From 370, the miracles of Martin had a great repercussion in Poitiers and beyond, as far as Tours... + board [Maric - Frisano 1994] and another plank from the same authors recounting five miracles.
    Resurrection of a young child, right [Lecoy 1881] + reproduction of a 13th-century tapestry, Louvre Museum, Lecoy 1881 + tableau by Fidelis Schabet 1846 in the church of St. Martin in Unteressendorf, Germany [Wikimedia] + panel central to the walnut altarpiece in the church of Vic en Bigorre [Simon Boysson 1681] + two stained glass windows from the 13th century : 1 Chartres Cathedral 2 cathedral of Tours [bay #204, Veranda 2018].
    Other resurrections. Two miniatures featuring the resurrection of the slave Lupicinus who had hanged himself : 1 ["Martinellus" 1110, BmT] (+ release completed and commented on in Lecoy 1881). 2 [Zwiefalten manuscript ca. 1135, Maupoix 2018]. + vitrail of Chartres Cathedral. + fresco where Martin rescues soldiers who died for Christ [Johannes Aquila, Martjanci in Slovakia, Lorincz 2001] and a miniature with two scenes, one with the young child, the other with the soldiers, Historic Mirror of Bruges 1455, by Guillaume Vrelant [BnF, Catalogue 2016]. The three young men can be found in a vitrail of the Church of St. Martin de Nonancourt in Normandy [Nguyen DoDuc] and on a fresco by Melchior Buchner in 1738 (link).

    Martin the miracle worker One of the foundations of Martin's success is the realization of his miracles : he is a miracle worker, one who heals in a miraculous way. Sulpice Severus makes this the essence of his book, Gregory of Tours would do the same two centuries later. Luce Pietri points out that "it was partly through his success as a healer who relieved the suffering of bodies that Martin conquered his power as a physician of souls entrusted to his priestly vigilance." A healer and exorcist, with gifts in psychology and mysticism, would have predispositions to perform miracles. Sulpice and Gregoire were gifted to ensure the media coverage. And Perpet knew how to prolong the occurrence of miracles around the tomb. According to Wikipedia : "The sociologist Gérald Bronner does not obtain significant statistical differences between the miracles of Lourdes and spontaneous remissions in hospitals (i.e. 1 case for 350,000)". Is this fair? In any case, the most striking scene, the sharing of the cloak, was not a miracle and is another, quite different, cause of Martin's success...

    Martin and the Birds. The range of Martin's miracles is broad and goes far beyond healings. Here is an example, left in the church of Saint Martin des Champs in Paris, a drawing by Felix Villé (link). "Peasants, who derived their livelihood mainly from fishing in a lake, saw a large number of birds flocking to the lake, catching fish without stopping and piling them up in their crop. Fearing the loss of their resources, these farmers called upon Saint Martin. When he came to the lake, he explained to the crowd that these birds were the image of the devil. They set their trap for the unwary, capture them and devour their victims, without being able to satiate themselves. Only prayer and absolute trust in God can overcome them. At the end of his exhortation, St. Martin, making the sign of the cross, commanded the birds to leave the place and never return, which they did immediately." Were there fishing martins ? On the right the same scene by Luc-Olivier Merson ["Saint Martin" Lecoy 1881]. + vitrail 1900 from the church of Saint Martin le Hébert, in Normandy [Edouard Didron] + Icelandic embroidery, detail, circa 1400 [Musée du Louvre, Collective 2019]. There were other miracles involving animals, such as one in which Martin drives the demon out of an angry cow (reproduction of a tapestry, Louvre Museum, Lecoy 1881) or that of the baggage-carrying bear (article from Fasc. NR 2012).

    The Healing of the Sick is a great classic of the lives of the saints and Martin knows how to do it. At left, panel from the workshop of the Master of Janosret 1483 [retable 1483 from the church of Csereny / Cerenany in Slovakia with Martin, John the Evangelist, and Nicholas in the center, Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, flickr Rex Harris]. In the center, painting by Johann Lucas Kracher 1770 [St. Martin's Church in Tiszapuspoki, Hungary, Lorincz 2001]. + another tableau [1605, Verona, Italy, Zeno Donise, link]. At right, a sculpture from the Church of St. Martin in the Bull Ring in Birmingham, England [flickr Glass Angel]. + five stained glass windows : 1 [St Martin de Sucy en Brie] church 2 [St Martin de Wimy church in Aisne] 3 [St Martin's Church in Metz] 4 [Church of St. Martin of Colmar in Alsace] 5 healing of a paralytic in Trier to the amazement of witnesses [Chartres Cathedral, flickr Paco Barranco]. In most of these illustrations, the pomp of Martin's clothing appears unseemly, in contrast to its simplicity in the two previous illustrations by Villé and Merson.

    At left, "Saint Martin and the Leper of Paris" by Joseph Blanc [Lecoy 1881].
    The Kiss to the Leper. Eight versions in stained glass [Semur 2015] : 1 Julien Fournier 1886, Saint Martin de Continvoir church in Touraine 2 Jean Clamens, 1906, Church of Saint Martin de Beaupréau, in Anjou (link) 3 [Bourges Cathedral] 4 [Chartres Cathedral] 5 [abbaye Saint Martin de Massay] 6 [Edouard Didron, church of Saint Martin le Hebert in Normandy] 7 [church of Louveciennes in Ile de France, flickr Patrick Berthou] 8 [church of St Martin de Fresnay, Normandy, link]. + tableau by Félix Villé in the church of Saint Martin des Champs in Paris + miniature of the "Martinellus" 1110, BmT + broderie from the Musée des Tissues in Lyon [Maupoix 2018] + fresco by Gebhard Fugel 1910 (Germany) and, over in Paris itself, a fresco in the church of St. Nicolas des Champs (link).
    At right, "The Kiss to the Leper," gemmail 1988 of the gemmists of France, made after a painting by René Margotton [Basilica of St. Martin de Tours, flickr melina1965]. Tours had a gemmail museum, closed in 2011 (article La NR 2012). + poster from the museum.

    [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]. Martin would also have rescued a young man : tableau by Sébastien Bourdon [Changeux collection, Paris, LM 2008-2].

    Saint Martin among the Orthodox and Protestant Lutherans. As a saint of the Orthodox Church, Martin enjoys a hymnal acathist, a song of thanksgiving with an iconic representation. On the left the icon corresponding to this acathist [French Orthodox parish, rue Saint Victor, Paris Vème]. Then another icon, made by Alain Chenal 1995, with his presentation (link) + fourteen others : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 [Louise Marie Rosseli] 9 10 11 with comment (link) 12 [Silouan Father from New York, flickr Jim Forest, link] 13 (link) 14 [Monique Roumy, link]. + wall bearing icons in the (Catholic) church of Saint Martin d'Ardentes in Indre [La NR 2018]. St. Martin also gives his name to Protestant German churches, whether this appointment is prior to the birth of Protestantism or later. More to the right statues (from 1984) at St. Martin's Church (Martinskirche) in Sindelfinge and a stained glass window at St. Martin's Church in Bonn. + stained glass window by Edouard Hosch on a design by Ernest Biéler 1900 in the St. Martin's Church in Vevey, Switzerland [Wikipedia] + image of Martin, by Theophilia, in the church St. Martin de Louiville in the USA (Kentucky), on a Lutheran website (link).

    Luther, father of Protestantism, was named Martin. He was named and baptized on November 11 (1483), the day after his birth, in honor of the Touraine bishop + the plank. Then there was a Martin Luther King, but he was born in January (1929)...
    Martin, a patron saint ? To be named patron of Tours and other cities, or to be considered the apostle of the Gauls and then the patron of the Frankish and Carolingian kingdoms, Martin has often been considered a patron saint. Also for the 1914-1918 war (ex-voto of 1915 in the basilica of Tours, LM 2008-2), we will see it again later. However, the artistic translation appears weak. Still, there is a fresco of St. Martin's Church in Palestro in Italy, where Martin protects the town from the throes of the Battle of Palestro in 1857 [LM 2008-1].

    Martin advocated the end of slavery. Here is the story of Martin and Tetradius (link) : "At the same time [circa 380-386], the slave of a certain Tetradius, an ancient proconsul, thus of high rank, perhaps living in retirement in one of his estates, was possessed of a demon who was torturing him atrociously. Saint Martin gave the order to have the sick man brought in, but it was impossible to approach him, so much did he throw himself at those who tried. Tetradius then begged Martin to come down to the house himself. But Martin refused, because Tetradius was still a pagan. Tetradius promised to become a Christian if the demon was driven out of his young slave. Martin agreed, laid his hands on the demon-possessed man and expelled the unclean spirit. This is the ritual gesture of exorcism, which the Orthodox priest still uses during the celebration of the catechumenate. At this sight, Tetradius had faith in Christ and immediately became a catechumen and soon after received baptism. He always kept an extraordinary affection for Martin". It is likely that in this scene, which takes place in Trier, Martin had more compassion for the slave than for Tetradius, because, consistently like other Christians at the time (including Melania the Younger, as we shall see later), he treated slaves as equals. This was already the case when he was a soldier with the slave assigned to him.

    At left, Martin buys slaves to free them [church in Sorigny in Touraine, Lobin workshop, link]. In the center, Martin delivers a demoniac, the slave of Tetradius, who watches the scene from above [Jacques Jordaens 1630 [Brussels Museum] + four variants : 1 [National Gallery of Art, Washington, link] 2 (link) 3 [Bristish museum] 4 (sketch). + resume in engraving [Lecoy 1881].
    Martin, Tetradius, and Genealogists Martin had no descendants, no nephews are known to him, and almost nothing is known of his ancestry. No genealogist can therefore claim to be related to him. But, if we went all the way back to Charlemagne, we have an ancestor, Tetradius (335-387), who knew Martin and benefited from one of his miracles, as explained above.
    Other depictions of Tetradius, his slave and Martin : On a vitrail of Chartres Cathedral, the possessed man is held tightly, arms bound, the proconsul Tetradius has a yellow headdress, a sign of his paganism. [vitrail from Chartres Cathedral, link], on a brodery from the Musée des Tissus in Lyon [Maupoix 2018] and on a tapestry, the demon comes out of the slave's mouth [collégiale Saint Martin de Montpezat de Quercy].

    Martin's hallucinations. Alongside the miracles that may have a basis in real life, Martin can be seen as performing a religious transcription of his dreams when he announces that he occasionally meets the saints Peter and Paul and the virgin Mary surrounded by Saint Agne and St. Thecla (summary of the episode, link). On the left, painting by Eustache le Sueur [1654, Musée du Louvre]. On the right, fresco by Félix Villé [1897, Notre Dame des Champs church in Paris, flickr P.K.]. + stained-glass windows of Thecla, Mary, and Agnes in the Basilica of St. Martin in Tours [Lorin workshop 1900, link].

    Let us end these prodigies of Martin where we began them, the sharing of the cloak also called "the charity of Martin" or "the charity of Amiens". There is the second charity of Martin, also called "the charity of Tours", "the poor of Tours" or "the mass of St. Martin" or "the miracle of the globe of fire" or the ball of fire. This was from the time when Bishop Martin officiated in his church of Saint Maurice (recall : on the site of the present cathedral). In preparation for his sermon, he gave, discreetly, a part of his clothes with a poor man. As in the first Charity, where Martin saw God in a dream taking the form of the beggar with his half-cape, a moralistic and Christological vision brings a conclusion: God places a ball of fire above Martin's head during his sermon. In both charities, the two scenes can be presented without each other and the second scene, important for believers, can appear incidental, dreamed up, even invented. But this time it is the second scene that is much better known than the first.

    Scene 1: Charity of Tours. On the left, box from Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 + two plates : 1 2 (without the miracle of the fire globe) + the same scene in tapering [collégiale Saint Martin de Montpezat de Quercy, flickr apaillous]. In the center, painting of the church of St. Martin de Souvigny en Sologne [1629, Collective 2019] + photo in its environment. + the report that Sulpice Severus makes of it in his "Dialogues" (these are writings subsequent to the Vita Martini)
    A bishop giving alms. Oddly enough, this scene from the Tours charity dealing with a gift of clothing, is confused with a gift of alms. Thus, on the right, Lecoy de la Marche titled the reproduction of an initials "Saint Martin and the poor man of Tours" [initials from the Marquis de Paulmy's Book of Hours, 15th century, BnF, Lecoy 1881]. The same is true for the following seven illustrations : 1 Dutch image (link) 2 print by Anton Wierx circa 1550 [Netherlands, link] 3 anonymous circa 1560 (link). 4 Frei Carlos (Portuguese painter of Flemish origin) circa 1530, where Martin is accompanied by Saints Vincent and Sebastian [Alberto Sampaïo Museum, link] 5 Wouter Michiels van Zammel, 1631 [St. Dimpnakerk Church of Antwerp in Belgium, flickr groenlig] 6 [Hans Holbein the Younger, Lecoy 1881] 7 workshop of the Master of the Martyrdom of the Apostles 1490 [Esztergom Christian Museum, Hungary, Lorincz 2001].
    Almsgiving and cloak sharing. Oddly enough, almsgiving is also associated with the charity of Amiens. Here are two examples on miniatures : 1 [Book of Hours of Catherine of Cleves circa 1440 in Belgium, flickr Peter] 2 ["The Golden Legend", Macon Library, Semur 2015].

    Scene 2: the miracle of the globe of fire above Martin's head. At left, painting "The Mass of St. Martin" by Eustache le Sueur [flickr Ondra Havala]. This painting and the one by the same painter shown a bit above, both now in the Louvre Museum in Paris, were painted, circa 1654, for the Abbey of Marmoutier (link). At center, "The Mass of St. Martin," 18th-century painting [abbaye St. Martin de Mondaye (Calvados), Maupoix 2018]. At right, stained glass window by Max-Ingrand, circa 1960, in the church of St. Symphorien in Azay le Rideau [Verrière 2018].
    The most represented scene after the sharing of the mantle? It is found on a sculpture from the St. Martin's Cathedral in Lucca (Italy), on a reliquary of the abbey of Maredsous in Belgium (link), on a tableau by an anonymous person circa 1440 [museum in Allentown, USA, flickr Itinerant Wanderer], two stained glass windows in Touraine, from the Lobin  workshop: 1 Truyes (almost identical to that from Rochecorbon) 2 Semblançay (link) and two others from the Fournier workshop, father Julien in 1896 and son Lux in 1936 : 1 Mareuil sur Cher (Fournier workshop, link) 2 Chambourg sur Indre. This and a vitrail from Rigny-Ussé are compared and commented on by Verrière 2018. And these seven stained glass : 1 copy of Le Sueur's painting [St Martin d'Avallon church in Burgundy, flickr Grangeburn] 2 [St Martin de Baugy church in Cher], 3 [St Martin's chapel in the abbey of Bourgueil] 4 [church of the Sucy en Brie] 5 [church of St Martin de Lure in Burgundy] 6 [Evreux Cathedral in Normandy, flickr Walwyn] 7 [Jacques le Chevalier, church of St Martin de Le Cateau-Cambrésis in Picardy, flickr Patrick]. Let's continue with a reproduction of a stained glass window from Le Mans [Lecoy 1881], a tableau by Claude-Amédée Bidot in the church of St Aignan in Meilly sur Rouvres (Franche-Comté), a drawing by Giovanni Lanfranco circa 1640 [New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, link], a tableau by Félix Villé in Saint Martin des Champs, Paris circa 1895, an Italian tableau of undetermined origin [LM 2007-1], a sculpture on wood, church of Savigny en Véron, Touraine (link), a image from the mid-20th century.
    Scenes 1 and 2 are combined on this panel left of a retable from the church of Joch in the Pyrenees (link). Let's end with the reunion of scene 1 of the Amiens charity and scene 2 of the Tours charity in a vitrail [church of La Roche Clermault in Touraine] and in a tableau by François Fayet 1674 [cathedral of Montauban, Wikipedia].

    [Maric - Frisano 1994] + the plank.

  11. Martin in all art forms

    Graphic arts and sculpture will be covered in this chapter. Architecture and literature will be in subsequent chapters. Music will be treated around Jean de Ockeghem, hereafter, in the evocation of religious songs. The theater will be evoked hereafter through a medieval mystery (+ illustration reprinted below), to which is added another play described and illustrated on this page of the Maupoix 2018. There were, of course, others before we reached the 21st century and "L'affranchi de Tours" by Djamel Guesmi in 2008 (article LM 2008-5) and Alain Pastor's "The Life of St. Martin" in 2014 (article from the Touraine Mag HS November 2015). The comics are covered almost exhaustively. So, even if the vision is sometimes partial, even if the cinema has forgotten Martin (but a solid television documentary by Arte has already been reported here-above), it is not excessive to consider that all art forms have been interested in the man who shared his mantle.

    Was Martin really the apostle of the Gauls? Around 390, the bishop of Tours was known throughout Gaul. Fifteen years later, with the writings of Sulpice Severus that make him the equal of an apostle, his fame spreads throughout the Roman Empire. However : "Although he went out several times of his diocese and even that a tradition makes of it " one of the apostles, the thirteenth to which was reserved the evangelization of Gaul (L. Pietri) " (p. 70), it is clear that if he " intervened with brightness outside of its diocese, it was occasionally " (p. 69)  this apostolate throughout Gaul is therefore a legend to be discarded" [Charles Lelong, Michel Carrias, in a article from 1997]. Be that as it may, Martin's fame was that of an apostle, benefiting over the centuries from countless illustrations in every possible medium.

    1) polychrome terracotta (height 38 cm), collégiale St Martin de Trôo (Loir et Cher) circa 1600 [Catalogue 2016] (P.S.: on site and vitrail) 2) Statuettes from churches in the greater Paris area (link) + another board with four statuettes. 3) Statue from the town of Twello in the Netherlands [flickr photo Willem Alink]. 4) tympanum of the Church St Martin de Villers-sur-Mer, Calvados.
    Statuettes and statues s'intérieur. Here are eighteen of them : 1 circa 1520, southern Swabia, Germany [Château-Musée de Saumur, Catalogue 2016] 2 second half of the sixteenth century in Crépy en Valois in Oise [photo Jean-Michel Guinot, Crépy Museum, link] 3 church in Great Mongeham in England [flickr Jeltex] 4 first half of the 16th century [Santa Cruz de Toledo Museum in Spain, flickr Pepbear] 5 16th century Croatia (link) 6 church in Ligueil in Touraine 7 [Danish History Museum, flickr Thomas Quine] 8 [St. Ferréol church in Saint Fargeau, Ile de France) 9 [cathedral of Valladolid in Spain, flickr albTotxo] 10 [Frederick Charles Shrady, New York, LM 2008-2] 11 [17th century Netherlands, Musée d'Aix la Chapelle, Colloque 1997 SAT] 12 [circa 1490, Cleveland Museum in England, Wikimedia] 13 [early 17th century, Pietro Bernini, Naples Museum, Wikimedia] 14 [Lancusi in Italy, link] 15 (Bonn in Germany, link) 16 (Egid Quirin Asam 1720, link) 17 Fresnoy le Luat in the Oise [Musée du Valois, link] 18 [Georg Rafael Donner 1735 Bratislava in Slovakia, flickr Victoria Lea B]. + two others in Touraine, selected from the portfolio of the Mag. Touraine HS 2015 : 1 (St. Martin de Berthenay church) 2 (St Martin's Church in Cangey). Many statuettes feature Martin as an impersonal bishop recognized only by an inscription, as on this page from the Semur 2015. And four clothed or semi-clothed statues : 1 church of San Martín de las Pirámides in Mexico City [flickr 2009] 2 in Taal in the Philippines (link) 3 church in Bocaue in the Philippines [flickr Fritz Rinaldi de Asis...] 4 church in Bingen am Rhein in Germany [flickr Hen-Magonza].
    Figurines. Small statuettes, they can be found for sale. This hand-painted resin figurine (21 cm tall), without a horse and with a red cape, is available on this page of the site "The Hope Shop", and this other figurine, measuring 14 cm, is on this page of the site "Monastic Traditions". + other figurines or santons : 1 2 3 4 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10. 11. 12. 13 14 15. 16. 17. 18 19 20. 21. 22. 23 24 25. 26
    Outdoor statues. Here are eleven of them: 1 (Hungary, link) 2 topping a fountain (1935, Cochem in Germany, flickr onnola] 3 (Ligugé, link) 4 [Piqua in the US, flickr tomcomjr] 5 [Church of St Martins in the Fields in London, flickr Patrick] 6 [Odolanow in Poland, Wikipedia] 7 [St. Martin's Abbey in Weingarten in Germany, flickr Frank Lammel] 8 (Poland, link) 9 link between two pilgrimage sites, donated by the Diocese of Tours in 1929 [on the esplanade of the basilica of Lourdes, flickr OP] 10 [A. Edelstahl 1997, Mainz, Germany, LM 2007-3] 11 [Carl Miles 1955 (original to Herserud in Sweden, flickr Gösta Knochenhauer), Lidingö in Sweden, flickr Gösta Knochenhauer, link]. And let's admire the elegance of the sculpture by Anna Chromy in Roquebrune Cap Martin on the French Riviera [LM 2008-2]
    Sculpted spandrels and pediments. Thirteen spandrels : 1, Church of St. Severin in Paris, by Jacques-Léonard Maillet 2, Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral (link + his engraving in Lecoy 1881) 3 church of St Martin de Bussy-Albieux, in the Loire 4 church of St Martin in Amiens (link) 4 St Martin's Church in Los Angeles, USA (link) 6 church in Louisville, USA [flickr M W] 7 church in Brampton in England (looks like a vintage Roman bas-relief...) [Ellen Mary Rope 1906, flickr Rex Harris] 8 Cathedral of Ourense in Spain [flickr Milan Tvrdy] 9 St. Martin's Church in Nàdasd in Hungary where martin dresses Christ [LM 2008-1] 10 church of Villalonga del Camp [Maupoix 2018] 11 1916, 1600th anniversary of Martin's birth, on the tympanum of the church in Olten, Switzerland [flickr Hurni Christoph] 12 Church of St. Martin de Beaupréau in Anjou [Semur 2015] 13 church >St Martin of Pisa in Italy [Maupoix 2018] (P.-S.). The statue of Martin in the nave of the church of St. Martin in Cires lès Mello in the Oise region has the peculiarity of taking the sculpture of the tympanum (photos Dominique Vermand, link]. For the painted spandrels and pediments, see the front. facades
    Out of category, a glazed earthenware stove tile from 17th century Hungary [Lorincz 2001].

    Low, mid-height or high... On the left statue in SaintMartinville in Louisiana, USA [LM 2008-2]. In the center statue in the city of Nagymaros in Hungary (link + other view) On the right, statue of the Cathedral of Liege in Belgium [flickr Live From Liege + view from below, photo by Jean-Pol Grandmont]. + six other statues : 1 in Hungary, vandalized (the butt on the ground), article 2 in Dugo Selo in Croatia [LM 2007-2] 3 in Arlon in Belgium, where, in duplicate, the bishop builder shares his mantle [LM 2007-2] 4 on a fountain in the monastery of St. Martin de l'Escalier in Palermo, Italy [LM 2007-3] 5 in Lerné in Touraine [Semur 2015] 6 [François Alfred Grevenich, Church of the Madeleine in Paris, link).
    Atop of the bell tower or the gable, or the dome... The statue of Martin overlooks the surroundings, as in the basilica of Tours. Here are four of these statues : 1 St Martin's church in Ambleny in Picardy where Martin seems to become Buddha [flickr Marc Roussel] 2 Church of St Martin de Cadillac in Gironde [flickr mconn19 + view from below] 3 Church of St Martin de Vitré in Brittany [Wikipedia + view from below] 4 on the entrance gate to the old town of Martina Franca in Italy [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal + views from below before and after cleaning].
    Low Reliefs or high Reliefs. In a door at Ligugé Abbey [flickr photo Martin], on a chapel [abbey of Moissac in Aquitaine, flickr Alien'or], on a burial slab of a man named Jean Pauli [15th century, collegiate church of Liege, Maupoix 2018]. A sculpture leaning against a wall [St Martin de Chevreuse church in Ile de France, flickr Oeil de verre]. Six bas-reliefs  1 1997 in the Cathedral of Amiens (link) 2 of small size made by Patrick Damiaens with expication on his realization in this page of his site 3 in Treviso in Italy [LM 2008-1] 4 Nevers Cathedral in Burgundy (link) 5 church in Bassenheim circa 1240 (in Germany the most famous depiction of Martin) [Master of Naumburg, Catalogue 2016] 6 Museum of the St. Martin's Charterhouse of Naples [Maupoix 2018] (P.-S.) Two high reliefs : 1 market square in Lviv in Ukraine [LM 2006-2] 2 campo St Martin in Venice in Italy [LM 2007-2]. Note four bronze bas-reliefs, of recent workmanship, on the door of the Szombathely Cathedral in Hungary (links :1 2) : 1 2 3 4. And another bronze by German artist Joseph Krautwald (width 8 cm, link). And, probably in painted plaster, a sculpture on a wall in Evenos in the Var [flickr Only Tradition].
    Painted sculptures. Here are three, about sharing the mantle, from flickr : 1 St. Martin's Church in León in Spain [manual m. v.] 2 church in Maastricht in the Netherlands [Bim Bom]
    And a sculpture in progress [Raymond Debenais, Mag. Touraine n°62 1997]...

    Mosaics and Signs. We saw above that the earliest known depiction of Martin is a mosaic from Ravenna. At left, 1892, St. Martin's Church in Eindhoven in the Netherlands [flickr Frans van Beers]. In the center, St. Martin's Church in Worms in Germany [flickr Hen-Magonza]. At right top, sign of the Saint Martin hotel in Colmar [flickr filoer]. On the right below, pilgrimage sign presented in the dedicated box below...
    Mosaics Here are five more : 1[St Martin de Nieppe church in Pas de Calais, link] On a 2 (Italian origin) 3 [St Martin in the Fields church in London, flickr Henk Schrijvers] 4 [Barcelona, la Caixa del Clot, St Martin's branch, flickr Arnim Schulz + view from below] 5 [2019, church in Tampa in the US, flickr giveawayboy]. 6 Marguerite Naville 1930, Church of St Martin de Lutry in Switzerland [flickr Jean-Louis Pitteloud]
    Signs. Here are seven of them: 1 staging camp (link) 2 St. Martin's Church in Worms in Germany [1915, flickr Hen-Magonza + view from below] 3 at Candes Saint Martin [flickr Carlos Pinho] 4 hotel in Auxerre in the Yonne LM 2006-2 5 inn in Bouilland in côte d'Or LM 2006-2 6 restaurant on the Garonne River in Langoiran [LM 2008-5) 7 in La Canourgue in Lozere [LM 2009-1]. How about a reverb in London [flickr Glass Angel] ?
    Pilgrimage Signs. These are small lead plaques, medals or figurines, which could be hung on a garment and brought back as a souvenir from a pilgrimage. In the [Catalog 2016], Véronique Moreau makes the presentation with as illustration, here above right below, a lead-tin pilgrimage sign (4.5 cm < 5.2 cm) found in Paris in the Seine. This type of popular object is now rare. + two other Martinian objects found in the Seine by Arthur Forgeais [Lecoy 1881] : 1 lead 2 another pilgrimage sign (comment by its finder).

    Vault Keys. Above, at the Church of St. Martin of Tours in Salamanca in Spain [flickr ctj71081 + gros-plan, flickr Lawrence OP]. Here are four more : 1 [collégiale St Martin de Colmar, link] 2 [Church of St. Martin in Groningen in the Netherlands, flickr groenling] 3 St Martin the Great Church in the city of York, England (link) 4 church of St Martin de Vendôme [16th century, Lecoy 1881].
    From Martinian ceramics. Seven ceramics of sharing the mantle : 1 Limousin enamel late 12th century [Ourense Cathedral Museum, Maupoix 2019] 2 (link) 3 4 5 (Paul Bony 1973, St Martin de Masevaux church (Haut Rhin), link) 6 Notre Dame de Chambly church in Picardy (link) 7 (Philippe Deshoulières, link). And glassware at Riesling in Rüdesheim am Rhein [flickr PHH Sykes]. This leads us to the enamel plates of the too-ignored Touraine artist Charles Jean Avisseau, a disciple of Bernard Palissy + dossier Avisseau. And this plaque in San Martin Square in Madrid [Carlos Cuerda] :

    Embroideries: the Processional Banners. this page features other types of embroidery, including hangings and tapestries (see below). we focus here on parish banners, of which there are many, since there are many parishes dedicated to Martin. 1) church of Eynsford in England [flickr Jelltex] 2) St Martin's Church in Ménetou-Râtel in the Cher [link] 3) St Martin's Church in Moutiers in Brittany [link]. 4) St Martin's Church in Stamford in England [flickr jmc4] Here are five more : 1 [St Martin de Neuvy en Dunois church in Eure et Loir, Catalogue 2016] 2 [Szombately Cathedral in Hungary, link] 3 [St Martin de Beuvron en Auge church in Normandy, flickr Barnie76] 4 [St Martin's Church in Nàdasd in Hungary, LM 2008-1] 5 [St. Martin's Church in Nagymaros in Hungary, LM 2009-1]. And five more in Touraine : 1 Tournon Saint Martin 2 Charnizay 3 La Chapelle Blanche Saint Martin 4 Men 5 Cangey (link). And two banner pages in the Semur 2015 : 1 2 . Much rarer is a bishop's cope, that of Bishop Rumeau, bishop of Angers in the late nineteenth century [Semur 2015].
    The blazons Saint Martin Three coats of arms : 1 in Ukraine [LM 2009-1] 2 [undetermined origin, Maupoix 2018]. 3 of Saint Martin de Castillon and four pages of Saint Martin coats of arms in Europe [LM 2007 and 2008] : 1 2 3 4.
    Coins bearing the effigy of Martin. Three types of antique coins [Lecoy 1881] : 1 Colmar circa 1500 2 from the Merovingians to Philip Augustus 3. Switzerland around 1600 Others will be featured later (1 2). Here are three more recent coins : 1 Republic of Lucca in 1741 [LM 2008-2] 2 2008 of the Cook Islands [LM 2009-1] 3 from the Vatican. And a Swiss banknote (link)

    Stained Glass : the Lobin, Fournier, Lorin workshops... Several stained glass windows from these three workshops are featured throughout this page. The Lobin workshop, created in 1848, closed in 1905, located in Tours (rue des Ursulines), was first directed by Julien-Léopold Lobin (1814-1864) then by his son Lucien-Léopold Lobin (1837-1892). He made the stained glass windows with scenes for the present-day Saint Martin Basilica in Tours. The Stained Glass Museum of Curzay sur Vonne presents this rosace on Saint Martin. + a ornament of La Rochelle Cathedral, 1881 (link). + short biographies of father and son in Mag. Touraine HS November 2000 + page of a 9-page article in Mag. Touraine #54 (1995) + article 1994 on the stained glass windows of Tours Cathedral and the Lobin workshop + page by Monique Roussat on the Lobin family There was first a competition and then a continuation with the Fournier workshop of Tours (also rue des Ursulines) run first by Julien Fournier and Amand Clément, then Julien alone, then his son Lux Fournier and then Van Guy. The Lorin workshop in Chartres, created by Nicolas Lorin (1833-1882) in 1863, still in operation, made the stained glass windows with portraits on stands for the present Saint Martin basilica in Tours. + His site. Chartres is also home to an international stained glass center (link + page Monumentum). + List of master glassmakers.

    "The stained glass window, reflection of Saint Martin ?" is the title of the book Verriere 2018 by Jacques Verriere. From the back cover :"Dazzling or modest, all of these stained glass windows tell the story of Saint Martin. Some tell well of miracles and faith, the man of hope and mercy. But on the whole, the Saint Martin they present to us is a conventional character who would have been hardly a soldier, and always with regret, who would have been hardly a monk, and especially not a hermit, and unceasingly obsessed by the image of the devil...; a bishop just as he should be, bitterly mourned, when he died, by all his brother bishops... Quite often, stained glass windows reveal more about their designers or the time in which they were conceived than about St. Martin himself." The author also weaves in some connections, notably between the stained glass windows of Tours Cathedral and those of the Lobin workshop, with the example of the falling staircase, stained glass from the church of St. Stephen in Tours.

    One of many stained glass windows on this page. Dated 1912 or shortly thereafter, it adorns St. Dunstan's Church in Lytchett Minster in England [flickr Michael Day] + view overall. + fifteen other stained glass windows on the mantle division otherwise (church provenance unless noted, general provenance from Nguyen DoDuc site) : 1 basilica of Martina Franca in Italy [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal + zoom before, flickr Francesco Montuoro] 2 Sacred Heart of Köszeg in Hungary [Lorincz 2001] 3 St Martin de Colmar Collegiate Church in Alsace 4 St Martin de Montigny le Bretonneux in Ile de Fance 5 Cormatin in Bourgogne 6 Louvre Museum in Paris 7 St Martin de Sartrouville in Ile de Fance 8 Dol de Bretagne Cathedral 9 château du Haut-Koenigsbourg in Orschwiller in Alsace 10 Sondernach in Alsace 11 musée de Cluny in Paris 12 Tigy in Orléans 13 Chanzeaux in Anjou 14 St. Patrick's Basilica in Montreal in Quebec 15 St Martin de l'Isle Adam in Ile de Fance + three stained glass windows on Martin bishop : 1 church of St. Martin de Nouans les Fontaines [Verri 2018] 2 St. Denis d'Amboise Church [Verriere 2018] 3 church of St Benoît du Lac in Quebec + two stained glass windows on Martin soldier : 1 church of Brienon sur Armençon in Burgundy 2 basilica of Domremy in Lorraine.
    Stocked stained glass. Nhuan DoDuc's website pages contain up to a dozen stained glass windows each, depicting "Saint Martin with the Beggar" : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10, "St. Martin Bishop" : 1 2 3 4, In the cathedral of Tours : 1 2, and again: 1 (Romilly sur Seine, 10) (Troyes, 10) 2 (Sucy en Brie, 94) 3 (Grandville, 10) 4 (Nonancourt, 27) 5 (Rumilly lès Vaudes, 10) 6 (Saint Florentin, 89) 7 (Saint Dié des Vosges, 88) 8 and 9 (Saint Martin es Vignes, Troyes 10) 10 (Jouy en Josas, 78) 11 12 13 14 (Basilica Tours, 37) 15 (Bourges cathedral, 18) 16 (Epernay, 51) 17 (Chartres Cathedral, 28) 18 (Les Bordes, 45) 19 (Etampes, 91) 20 (Colmar, 68) 21 (Macquigny, 02) 22 (Wimy, 02) 23 (Ammerschwihr, 68).
    For stained glass windows with multiple scenes in series, see the next chapter hereafter.

    Effectively, more so than in other modes of representation, the countless stained glass windows depicting Martin are confoundingly historically mediocre, thankfully enhanced by artistic quality. Not only does the cloak-sharing scene abuse the red-cloaked horseman towering over his interlocutor while Martin was on foot with a white chlamydia (see hereabove), but bishops, who wore no miter or crosier in Martin's time and during the first millennium, are very often adorned with them. This goes beyond Martin alone; Christian iconography is overrun with anachronisms and, even in the twenty-first century, there is little progress beyond the cartoon for the miter and crosier. The mitre has only been worn by Western bishops since the 12th century. Martin, Brice and many others have therefore never worn it... If the pastoral staff (a long curved stick), seems to be used by bishops as early as the 5th century, the crosse with a scroll, sometimes existing in the 10th century, will only become their attribute in the 13th century. As for the auraole, it already existed in the Roman Empire, so before Martin's death... Similarly, the pallium, the vestment of the bishops, does not appear until the 5th century, thus after the death of Martin. In this the paintings of Felix Villé (this one already shown), appear to be correct. + possibly this statuette of Martin in the church of Repentigny, in Normandy, with a questionable headdress... On the other hand, this tableau (titled "The miracle of St. Martin") from the church of St. Martin in Cuy in the Yonne, despite a beautiful and easily understandable symbolism, is totally inappropriate...

    From retables especially in Spain and Germany. 1) basilica of St. Martin and St. Mary of Treviglio in Italy [Barnardo Zenalo and Barnardino Butinone, flickr dvdbramhall + overview] 2) Martin surrounded by John the Evangelist and Sebastian [Bartolomeo Vivarini 15th century, Carrara Academy in Italy, flickr raffaele pagani] 3) church of Xanten in Germany [flickr groenlig] 4) church of St. Martin ofArtieda in Spain (link). Eight other altarpieces or polyptics, painted and/or in relief : 1 (Saint Martin d'Hauteville-Gondon church in Bourg Saint Maurice in Savoie, link) 2 Valencia in Spain, early 16th century [Musée de Cluny in Paris, flickr Yann.O] 3 St. Martin's Chapel in Bürgstadt in Germany, next to a statue [flickr pitpix2010] 4 Retables Museum (former St. Esteban Church) in Burgos in Spain [flickr Santiago Abella] 5 Martin, Jerome and Sebastian [Jaume Ferrer circa 1450, Barcelona Museum, flickr Michael Martin] 6 Martin on the right, St. Blaise on the left [doors of the medieval church of North Crawley in England, flickr Lawrence OP]. More altarpieces and painted panels can be found in the next chapter 7 Lutheran Church in Marburg in Germany [Collective 2019] 8 altarpiece panel from the Diocesan Museum in Rottenburg, Germany [Maupoix 2018]. Continuation of the altarpieces and panels in the next chapter hereafter.

    Miniatures of mantle sharing.... There are a lot of thumbnails on this page. Here is a supplement regarding the sharing of the mantle, unless otherwise noted "bishop". Above, illumination from the BnF (Latin call number 920, fol. 300v). And six miniatures from The Pierpont Morgan Library museum in New York (link) : 1 psalter from Gand in Belgium circa 1280 2 book of hours from Nantes circa 1445 [Master of Jeanne de Lavel]. 3 Book of Hours from Angers circa 1470 [Jean Colombe, Michel's brother] 4 book of hours from Tours circa 1520 [Master of Claude de France] 5 ditto (bishop). 6 sacramentary of Mont Saint Michel circa 1065 (bishop). + eleven other miniatures : 1 British Library manuscript [Maupoix 2018] 2 lettrine from the "Life and Miracles of St. Martin of Tours" [early 13th century BnF, Maupoix 2018]. 3 missal for the use of Tours commissioned by Simon Renoulph archbishop of Tours from 1363 to 1379 [BmT, Catalogue 2016] 4 collection of twelfth-century writings on parchment [Bibliothèque Ste Geneviève de Paris, Catalogue 2016] 5 captioned circa 1330 by various artists including Jeanne de Montbaston [BnF, Catalogue 2016] 6 Book of Hours for the Use of Rome, illuminations by the Master of the Scandalous Chronicle (the Master of Martainville and three other anonymous Touraine illuminators also worked on the miniatures) [BmT, Catalogue 2016] 7 [Macon Library, 1997 Symposium SAT] 8 psalter said to be by Lambert the stammerer, ca. 1290 [Liège Library, Colloquium 1997 SAT] 9 "Horae beatae Mariae virginis," Paris 1515 [Harvard University] 10 Belleville Breviary, Jean Pucelle 1326 [BnF, Gallica] 11 festive gradual for the use of Notre Dame la Riche of Tours adapted for use in Amiens [Bibl. d'Amiens, Catalogue 2016]. And multi-scene thumbnails in the next chapter hereafter.

    And more frescoes... Painted plaster, once in the St. Martin de Tours museum, from the Charlemagne tower + two original photos : 1 [Lelong 1986] 2 (P.-S.) [Arsicaud, archives dép. 37] + another fresco on the bishop of Tours, in the church of Saint Martin d'en Haut near Lyon (link). Also churches decorated with frescoes this-following and painted facade frescoes this-front.
    And the sharing of the mantle... Twelve frescoes of sharing the mantle : 1 church of Elmelunde in Denmark, partly erased (decoration covered with plaster by Protestants, rediscovered in the 1880s, link) [Elmelunde Master] 2 St. Martin's Church in Lenningen in Germany [paramedix] 3 St. Martin's Church of Oberwölz in Austria [Josef Adam Mölk 1718, Wikipedia] 4 church in Jaleyrac in Auvergne [15th century, Wikipedia] 5 Church of Jeantes in Picardy [Charles Eyck 1962, flickr PepBear Enjoyadventure + zoom back with right above Martin in bishop's habit] 6 1512 fresco of the Cathedral of Albi with the curious presence of St. Livrade [Anne L.] 7 painted interior tympanum of the church of St. Martin de Varennes sur Morge in the Massif Central [Martine Sodaigui + zoom back] 8 church of St Martin de Granges in Burgundy [LM 2006] 9 church of Martjanci in Slovenia [Master Johannes Aquila, LM 2008-1] 10 church of La Sauve in Girona [Collective 2019] 11 1623, Bominaco, oratory of San Pellegrino in Italy [Maupoix 2018 + overview] 12 pillar of the basilica of Saint Nicolas de Port in Lorraine (link).

    And a few more paintings and pictures about sharing the mantle... In addition to the numerous ones scattered along this page, here above is a close-up of an1836 painting by Alfred Rethel, genius artist gone mad (short bio, link) [Hamburg in Germany, flickr Amber Tree]. and here are fifteen other paintings, attached to the sharing of the coat: 1 Church of St. Martin in Leobersdorf in Austria [Johann Nepomuk Höfel, flickr Josef Lex] 2 Ligugé [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal] 3 Pilgrims' Museum in Santiago de Compostela in Spain [flickr Josercid] 4 Church of Saint Germain l'Auxerrois in Paris [flickr Anne L] 5 an effeminate Martin of Peruvian origin [school of Cuzco] 6 painting of a sculpture [Master of Affligem Abbey 1475, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium in Brussels, flickr PepBear] 7 a painting, banner and statue in the church of St. Martin in Kraichtal-Landshausen in Germany [flickr pitpix2010] 8 anonymous 18th century [National Museum of Art of Bolivia, LM 2006-1] 9 [National Gallery of Hungary, Budapest, Lorincz 2001] 10 [St. Martin's Church of Szombathely, Hongris, Lorincz 2001] 11 [Csaba Toth, property of the artist, Lorincz 2001] 12 [Spanish origin, late 15th century, Bonnat Museum, Bayonne, [Maupoix 2018] 13 [Lorenzo di Bicci circa 1385, Florence in Italy, Catalogue 2016] 14 Leo Schnug 1906 with Martin looking like Don Quixote [Wikimedia] 15 [Martin Fréminet 1567, Musée du Louvre in Paris, LM 2018].

  12. Illustrations of episodes from the life of Martin sanctified

    We have mostly seen the episodes of Martin's life in isolated scenes. This chapter deals with the succession of scenes in the various media, following various forms.

    The life of Martin in a succession of images. The life and miracles of Martin are celebrated in many ways. On the left Icelandic embroidery, between the 14th and 16th centuries, preserved in the Louvre Museum [2.80 m x 2.1 m, link Wikimedia + the scene of the shared coat, Maupoix 2018]. At center a stained glass window from the collegiate church of Candes Saint Martin, circa 1900 [flickr Stephen Shankland]. We've seen other successions of scenes from the life of Martin in bays in the cathedrals of Tours and Chartres and, of course, the Tours basilica, such as this bay from the Lobin workshop. On the right, exhibition in the garden of the Carmel of Tours in September 2019, playful path. + children's drawings in Germany (link).

    Collegiate church hangings Saint Martin de Montpezat de Quercy, Lot et Garonne. Originally from Flanders, they were installed in the early 16th century and have always remained in the same place [flickr photo Vaxjo]. Besides the one above the overview, here are eight of the scenes : 1 the devil attacks Martin in his sleep (+gros-plan, flickr Vaxjo) 2 the staircase chute 3 of mantle sharing [Wikimedia], 4 of destruction of a temple and healing of a sick person [flickr Vaxjo), 5 of felling the pine tree [flickr Vaxjo), 6 previously featured from Tetradius, 7 already featured from the second charity. 8 two women chatting during mass [commentary "Les renaissances", Philippe Hamon, Belin 2013]. + another view of set including two painted pictures [flickr Patrick Chabert] + another view of the exterior [flickr Pittou2].
    Other embroideries. After the Icelandic one in the Louvre and the ones in Montpezat, here are two large pieces of cloth decorated with scenes from the life of Martin  1 antependium from the 14th century, once in the basilica of St. Martin in Liege, now in a museum in Brussels (link), with detail with triple scene, and other detail [Maupoix 2018] 2: three embroideries from another antependium, said to be from Malines, in the Germanic region around the thirteenth century [Musée de Cluny, Paris, link] : 1 2 3. 3 : seven 14th-century embroideries at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art [link] : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. And, an isolated scene, a tenture of the cloister of the abbey of Vendome (link).

    Episodes from the life of Martin in a large stained glass window in the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Chartres. Many stained glass windows feature scenes from the life of Martin (we've already seen, here, the three bays of Tours Cathedral). A bay from Chartres, here in the center, shows about 40 of them. It is remarkable, executed between 1215 and 1275, classified as a historical monument in 1840. A page Wikipedia describes it precisely, with this comment for the illustration on the left showing the ordination at Tours : "Two bishops assist the officiating bishop, who places a gospel on Martin's back : by this he symbolizes that the bishop's charge is to bring the gospel to the people entrusted to him. Martin is in prostration before the altar". On the right, Martin is traveling on his donkey.
    St. Martin's stained glass windows. Here are sixteen more bays collecting scenes from the life of Martin : 1 St. Stephen's Cathedral in Bourges (link) 2 church in Kaiserslautern in Germany [flickr Josef Lex] 3 church in Castelnau Montratier in the Lot [flickr Jean Pierre Fevrier] 4 [church in Arbon in Switzerland, flickr Hurni Christoph] 5 [Cathedral of Bayonne, flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal] 6 [St Martin de Castelnau-Montratier church in the Lot, flickr Jean-Pierre février] 7 [St Martin's Church in Bremen in Germany, flickr Rex Harris] 8 [St Martin de Metz church in Lorraine, flickr PepBear] 9 [church of Saint Ouen les vignes in Touraine, link] 10 [Olivier Durieux 1873 workshop in Reims, St Martin de Wimy church in Aisne, flickr Patrick] 11 [Louis-Victor Gesta, Church of St. Martin de Biscarosse, in the Landes, with explanations, link] 12 [Louis-Victor Gesta in the church of St. Martin de Biscarosse, in the Landes, with explanations, link] 13 [St. Martin de Saint Valéry sur Somme church] 14 workshop of Maréchal and Champigneulle in Metz, Lorraine (link + 15 church in Chagny in Bourgogne + 16 church of St Etienne de Tours [atelier Lobin 1874, link], + two pages from the Nhuan DoDuc  website: 1 2).
    Serial Stained Glass. Eighteen 1900 stained glass windows from the church of Saint Martin le Hébert, in Normandy presented by two or three [Edouard Didron, link] : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 + five stained glass windows in the St Ouen Abbey in Rouen (link) : 1 2 3 4 5 + six stained glass windows of the St Martin de Clamecy Abbey in the Nièvre (link) : 1 2 3 4 5 6. + seven stained glass windows by Gustave Pierre Dagrant in the church of St Martin de Réalville in Tarn et Garonne (link) : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. + a large veranda of the Church of St. Martin de Laon broken into three (Nhuan DoDuc) : 1 2 3.
    Suites of modern Martinian stained glass. Around 1935, the twelve stained glass windows of the church of Saint Martin in Perpignan, were created by the Toulouse master glass artist André Rapp [flickr Martine Sodaigui, link) : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. In 1980, Didier Gallet created a series of thirteen stained glass windows for the church of St. Martin in Ury, in the Ile de France region, designed as a kind of comic strip telling the life of Martin. Here they are, with a double explanation, via this page and this document : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
    Unlike painted panels, single-block stained glass windows with multiple scenes from the life of Martin are rare. Here is one of undetermined origin (link). Other stained glass windows notably in the previous chapter here.

    Series of miniatures. On this page, illuminations are shown generally in isolation, especially in the previous chapter. Here are two sets. Picked up in part in the four illustrations above, five double miniatures of Master Francis [Historial Mirror, Poitiers 1460 parchment, BnF, link] : 1 2 3 4 5. Four scenes from a fifteenth-century manuscript in the Le Mans library, Louis Aragon media library [Maupoix 2018] : 1 (sharing) 2 (dream) 3 (appearance of the devil) 4 (death) and, already shown, the announcement of Martin's death to Sulpice Severus. See also hereabove the miniatures of the book offered to the King of France in 1496. And a miniature depicting five scenes [Master of Jean Rolin II 1455, The Hours of Simon de Varye, Wikimedia].

    Scenes succeeding each other on painted or carved panels, altarpieces..., often altarpieces and polyptics. Like stained glass windows, altarpieces allow for scenes from the life of Martin to be displayed. The one on the left, a tempera painting on wood, of unknown origin, may have come from a workshop in Vic, Catalonia, in the fifteenth century, the author could be Nicolau Verdera. The peculiarity of this altarpiece is to represent another one on the altar at the bottom right (1.80 m high, link). On the right, a painted wooden panel from the twelfth century from Sant Marti in Puigbo in Spain [Episcopal Museum of Vic], with a Christ surrounded by four episodes from the life of Martin + gros-plan [flickr François Chédeville]. Four scenes from the altarpiece by the Master of Riofrio [ca. 1500, oil on wood, gilding with gold leaf, 1.65 m high, Goya Museum in Castres, Maupoix 20181 mantle sharing 2 resurrection of the slave of Lupicin 3 ordination of Martin 4 death of Martin (with reading from a book of illuminations...) + documentation with other panels]. Six other multi-scene panels : 1 altar facing with six scenes in the church of Santa Maria de Palau de Rialb in Catalonia [Lleida school, last quarter of the 13th century, tempera painting on wood, Santiago de Compostela Museum, Spain] 2 altarpiece from the church of Sant Marti Sescorts in Osana, Catalonia, first half of the fifteenth century, 3.7-meter-high tempera painting on wood [The Master of the Anemic Figures, link + four scenes Maupoix 2018) 3 Los Caminos Museum in Astorga in Spain [flickr Santiago Abella + part 2] 4 Museo de Arte de Cataluna (link) 5 the altarpiece in the church of Repentigny, in Normandy, features six scenes explained on this link 6 Altar circa 1520 from Bergkirchede of Sighisoara in Romania [Lorincz 2001].
    Succession of various reliefs on wood, ivory, ceramic, stone... The altarpiece in the church of St. Martin in Llanera, Spain, is a remarkable sculpted work made by Joan Grau around 1651, the Maupoix 2018 presents us with its six scenes : 1 2. Two other carved altarpieces : 1 Church of St. Martin of Isar-Burgos in Spain [Domingo de Amberes 1552, flickr Santiago Abella] 2 Houston Museum of Fine Arts in the USA [flickr B. Trousers]. The scenes are reduced to two, consecration and sharing, in this curious diptych in Cologne ivory circa 1350 [9 cm wide, Cleveland Museum, link]. + volet of another diptych in ivory [circa 1400, Maillet du Boulay collection, Lecoy 1881]. Sometimes carved scenes follow one another at the top of the pillars, like this capital [flickr Nick Thompson] or the capital of the abbey of Saint Martin de Boscherville in Normandy [flickr Olivier Denel] In Tettens, Germany, the scupted scenes follow one another [flickr groenlig]
    Beginning of the altarpieces and panels in the previous chapter here-before.

    A life in one picture. In one picture, the sharing of the cloak and the resurrections of the child and the catechumen [Winifred Knights circa 1930, Canterbury Cathedral, England, link] + fresco [St. Martin's Chapel in Szombathely, Hungary, Béla Kontula 1942, Lorincz 2001] + vitrail by Max Ingrand [St. Martin's Church in L'Aigle in Normandy] + vitrail from the church of Viege in Switzerland [Paul Monnier, flickr Jean-Louis Pitteloud] + vitrail of the Church of St. Martin de Worms in Germany [flickr Hen-Magonza]. At right, painting by Egbert Modderman [2017, The Netherlands], as a curtain closes...

    Scenes to be discovered in Martin buildings. Before dealing with the four remarkable decorations illustrated above, let us add a fifth, already presented throughout this page (summary in appendix 3), it is the frescoes of Simone Martini in the St. Martin's Chapel in Assisi, Italy, here are two overviews : 1 2 (link).
    1) The little Sistine of Sillegny, commune of Moselle (480 inhabitants) detail of a fresco of the last judgment in a 1540 setting that transforms this modest St Martin's church into a little Sixtine [flickr Patrick] + view of the last judgment + detail with the surprising presence of a St. Anthony (which one?) and a singular sharing of the cloak, without the poor man, explained by Maupoix 2018 + another representation by Martin + view of exterior + links : 1 2 3. And even when there is lavish decor awash with biblical and gospel scenes, the photo of a St. Martin's church like the one in Häselgehr in Austria may contain a cute little statuette of the sharing of the mantle.
    2) The extraordinary 12th century frescoes of the Church of Saint-Martin in Nohant-Vic in the Indre region. They were discovered in 1849 by Abbé Jean-Baptiste Périgaud, who with the help of George Sand, obtained, thanks to the intervention of Prosper Mérimée, the classification of the church as a historical monument. The apse and choir are decorated with scenes that this page Wikipedia describes in detail. Two of them have to do with Martin, for his death and the evacuation of his body : detail [flickr Patrick and flickr Martine Sodaigui]. The sharing of the coat is also present in two images complementing each other : detail explained by Maupoix 2018. These frescoes have been reconstructed identically at the Cité de l'architecture et du patrimoine in Paris, Palais de Chaillot, and at the Museum of Ōtsuka Art in Naruto (Tokushima), Japan. + view from outside.
    3) The fantastic ceiling of the Church of Saint Martin de Zillis. Zillis is a small Swiss town whose Protestant St. Martin's church has a Romanesque-era ceiling made of 153 square plates (9 rows of 17) of about 90 cm on each side, most of which are made of fir covered with a thin layer of plaster and then painted before being inserted into the ceiling [flickr Xavier de Jauréguiberry]. Two of these plaques (147 and 148) depict the sharing of the mantle  photo, a third plaque (149) shows Hilaire's ordination of Martin the exorcist [Maupoix 2018]. + view of the exterior.
    4) The impressive frescoes in the St. Martin's Chapel in Bürgstadt in Germany. Viewed from afar, this chapel doesn't look like much. First, we discover a beautiful front door with Martin carved on the tympanum). The interior is covered with frescoes, walls and ceiling, dating from around 1590. There is a Martinian double-scene of the healing of a sick man and the death of Martin and also, on the altar and next to it, a painting and sculpture of the sharing of the mantle : photo. Illustrations from Wikipedia and flickr pitpic2010.

    Let's mention more common examples that show that, outside of cathedrals and other majestic monuments, modest St. Martin's churches can detect, even in small numbers, artistic beauties that often may not relate to Martin. Above, a capital from the church of St. Martin in Landiras in Gironde, which may depict Martin grappling with his demons (+ views). Or some frescoes from the 12th century in the chapel of St Martin de Fenollar, a town in the Pyrénées Orientales (link + views) Let's not forget that such surviving paintings are rare and many frescoes are gone or show only vague traces, as shown in this view [flickr Ellen Bouckaert] of the interior of the church of St. Martin d'Ougy in Burgundy with this part of preserved fresco (link). Reminder : of the (less giant...) frescoes in the previous chapter this-before.

    The appearance of Martin in his churches Bruno Judic, in Collective 2016 (also in this page):"Talking about the " Martinian figure " suggests a representation, an image, a portrait. Yet one would be hard-pressed to show a datable portrait from the saint's time, at least in appearance. [...] Martin has a radiant face but what face ? No details are given  we must resign ourselves to an image already transformed, to an intensity of radiance, to a necessarily " superhuman " assembly of the various roles occupied by Martin. [...]The earliest known representation of the figure of St. Martin is a mosaic from Ravenna datable to about 570 [see here-before]. [...]The Touraine basilica was the source of many Martinian images. [...] Towards the end of the sixth century, Gregory of Tours had the cathedral rebuilt and introduced Martinian scenes that Fortunat evoked in a poem : one could see a triptych with the healing of the leper, the sharing of the chlamydia and the mass of the globe of fire  there were also the resurrections operated by the saint, the cut pine tree, the snakes, the false martyr, the healing of the daughter of Arborius and the overturned idols." These are all the scenes that will be reproduced from centuries to centuries, in buildings and religious works. Recently, comics, by the multiplicity and continuity of images have gone a little beyond, but without really daring to move away from it. There is however matter.

    Three Painter-Narrators of Martin. Around 1900, these three painters, who specialized in religious art, renewed the figure of Martin by ridding it of its anachronistic ornaments and superior air to get closer to the simplicity that was his. Each of the three portrayed him in several paintings, shown throughout this page, grouped in the annex 3.
    Luc-Olivier Merson (1846-1920) was 35 years old when he collaborated on the Lecoy 1881, and many of the six paintings he created became models for other artists. + other photo.
    Félix Villé (1819-1907) was more than 70 years old when he volunteered, from 1890 to 1897, to create a dozen large painted panels for the Church of St. Martin des Champs (also known as St. Martin des Marais) in Paris (link). Other photo of his work in the church + view of the exterior + his necrological note by Ubald d'Alençon (1908).
    Gebhard Fugel (1863-1939), a German national based in Munich, created, at the age of almost 50, half a dozen frescoes on Martin in 1910 / 1912 for the ceiling of St. Martin's Church in Wangen im Allgäu in Germany (outside view, flickr Michael Mertens). Another view of his work on the ceiling [flickr János Korom] + his page Wikipedia in German and his page in English, further illustrated.

    The four comic book albums about Martin of which boxes and plates are present several times on this page. 1) Maric - Frisano 1994 : "Saint Martin", texts Raymond Maric, drawings Pierre Frisano, colors by Marie-Paule Alluard, éditions du Signe 1994, reissued 2016. 2) Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 : "Martin of Tours," texts Pierre-Yves Proust (see box below), drawing Freddy Martin and Vincent Froissard, editions Glénat and La NR 1996. + back cover. 3) Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996 : "The XIIIth Apostle, Martin of Tours", texts Frédéric Fagot and Eric Mestrallet, drawings Lorenzo d'Esme, Fagot de Maurien editions 1996. + back cover. 4) Brunor - Bar 2009 : "Martin, Sharing the Truth", texts Brunor, drawings Dominique Bar, colors Géraldine Gilles, editions Mame-Edifa 2009 + two last pages "What happened to them ?" with the main characters : 1 2.
    Other comics. There was also in 1987, published by Fleurus "Clé de route", the album noted Nikto - Kline 1987 "Christians in Touraine" with 20 pages of comics on text by Irene Nikto and drawing by Kline (cover). BD Utrecht 2016 : in 2016, the Touraine association (from Artannes sur Indre) "Le Figuier" published in French the Dutch comic book "Sint Maarten, een levende legende" under the title "Saint Martin une légende vivante". It features three stories of 16, 12 and 12 pages  "His life" text by Nico Stolk drawing by Niels Bongers, "His legend" by Joshua Peeters, "And Utrecht" by Albo Helm. + cover Dutch, cover French, presentation (featuring the role of the St. Martin's Council of Utrecht in originating this comic). More briefly, full-length narratives have told of Martin's life. For example, a 1997 story in four plates (link) : 1 2 3 4. And in the U.S., in the comics Treasure chest, a three-panel "The mantle of charity" story about Martin in April 1947 by Silvio A. Bedini : 1 2 3 (+ cover, link). See also this-before short stories for children. + first plank of another story. An English story in six plates by Edward Ned McConaghy : 1 2 3 4 5 6 and the assembly with covers and intro. A 1962 Spanish booklet scripted by Javier Penalosa, drawn by Hector Insunza, in 32 plates, of which this is the integral and three plates extracted : 1 (Martin soldier and his slave) 2 (destruction of the temple at Amboise) 3 (resurrection of a child). Two Argentine boards (link) : 1 2. And an Italian story in eight plates [text Gimmi Rizzi, drawing Bruno Dolif + cover) : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (drawing below).
    Martin and the comic book writer. Remarks by Pierre-Yves Proust, screenwriter of the 2nd comic strip featured above in Mag. Touraine #62 1997 : "Martin, he's a fabulous character, close to people, strong, smart, stern, funny. It's a good cause : I would have followed him. He is not a yes-man. We saw him as a former officer, shaved head, austere face. Somewhere between Anthony Quinn and Clint Easwood."

  13. Edifications to the glory of Martin sanctified.

    The cult of Martin began with the text of Sulpice Severus and its spread throughout the Roman Empire. It continued in other forms, as Bruno Judic shows in "The origins of the cult of Saint Martin of Tours in the 5th and 6th centuries"". In it, he describes the multiplication of cult monuments built in his name  "The first half of the sixth century is marked by the rise of Martinian dedications in the Frankish kingdom: Chartres, Bourges, Paris, Mayence and from Mainz to the Rhineland and later Frankish territories. [...]The second period, late seventh century, however, is even more "political". The second phase indeed corresponds to a new Frankish expansion in the direction of the north and east under the leadership of the Pippinids, Pepin of Herstal, and then in the early eighth century, Charles Martel. This second phase is thus attributed to Saint-Martin of Cologne and Saint-Martin of Utrecht. Finally a third period: late eighth - early ninth century with Charlemagne." We'll come back to this.

    From writing to building. Bruno Judic links these edifications to the echo encountered by the book of Sulpice Severus : "Tours is certainly one of the essential elements of the cult of the saints, but the text, the Vita, is another no less essential element of the cult of the saints. Now we have, with the Vita Martini of Sulpice Severus, an exceptional text, contemporary with the saint himself, of great literary quality and of great spiritual inspiration. This Vita is moreover increased by some essential pieces also from the pen of Sulpice Severus, three letters in particular to evoke the death of the saint, and the Dialogues." Sulpice is relayed by Pauline of Nole, "a brilliant intellectual, in correspondence with St. Jerome and St. Augustine." "We have two major elements to appreciate this "Italian" diffusion: the construction of a basilica of Saint Martin in Rome (Saints Sylvester and Martin) by Pope Symmachus (between 498 and 514) and the writing of a manuscript, the Veronensis XXXVIII, well dated to 517. Both of these facts are exceptional. Rome remained attached until the seventh century to a cult of saints which was above all the cult of martyrs, whereas elsewhere the holy bishops were venerated very early on. This shows what an astonishing reputation Martin had acquired, as early as the fifth century, to have a church erected for him in Rome."

    From Trier to Rome, built in the name of St. Martin.Martin made several trips to Trier, crossing the Porta Nigra as a tourist (as it was not on his way) (left photo circa 1900), to meet with Emperor Maximus. In these places will be founded a St. Martin's Abbey (next photo, Wikipedia). This abbey may have been founded in the 6th century on a church built by Martin in the 4th century. + view of the abbey around 1750. More than 1500 km away, the basilica of Rome Saints Silvester and Martin, first an oratory in the course of the 4th century, was built around 500 and later enlarged. [Wikipedia] On the right is an interior view of the current basilica + view from the outside + view of the interior [Lecoy 1881].

    Judic then invites us to imagine a correlation between the oldest buildings with the name of Martin and the places of his passage : "Can we find milestones between Paulin, at the beginning of the 5th century, and the beginning of the 6th century ? We can note at least one case : in Pavia, the bishop Crispinus I, who died in 466, is buried in an ecclesia sancti Martini in Terra Arsa (today San Martino Siccomario). It is a text of the fourteenth century that reports this fact but also refers to a translation of the remains in the ninth century. If we trust this late witness, a church of St. Martin existed in the vicinity of Pavia as early as the middle of the fifth century. Pavia is, according to the Vita Martini, the saint's childhood home. Reading the Vita could prompt Martin to relocate to one of the places of his life. Churches dedicated to St. Martin are very numerous throughout Italy, as well as localities bearing the name of St. Martin. Naturally, each case must be examined. But it is not impossible that some dedications may date back to the fifth century. [...]Two are particularly important : Ravenna and the Mont Cassin."In each of these churches, frescoes and statues illustrate the sharing of the mantle and the miracles of Martin. This is what we would call today large-scale media coverage.

    Saint Martin's Cathedrals. Here are five of them : 1) Mayence (Germany) (+ view of interior, flickr Kristobalite), 2) Colmar (France, collegiate church often referred to as "cathedral", located on Cathedral Square) (+ engraving Lecoy 1881 + statue of the central portal of the west facade + view of the interior + link), 3) Utrecht (Netherlands), Protestant since 1580 (+ view of interior, Wikimedia + the cloister, lecoy 1881), 4) Bratislava (Slovakia) (+ view of interior, flickr Harold Stern), 5) Lucques (Italy) [Wikipedia] (+ engraving and reproduction of bas-relief in Lecoy 1881 + page from LM 2007-2) (+ two interior views [flickr mira66] : 1 2).
    And other cathedrals (Wikipedia illustrations, e = exterior view, i = interior view) : Rottenburg in Germany (e, i), Leicester in England (e, i), Belluno in Italy (e, i), Pietrasanta in Italy (e, i), Eisenstadt in Austria (e, i), Mukachevo / Munkacs in Ukraine (e, i), Spis / Spiska in Slovakia (e, i), Sogamoso in Colombia (e, i), Kabinda in Congo-Kinchasa (e, i), Mweka in Congo-Kinchasa (e, i), Ypres in Belgium (e, i, engraving Lecoy 1881), Ourense in Spain (e, i + the portal, Lecoy 1881). Add, for the Anglican Church, the Canterbury Cathedral, the oldest religious building in England (e, i, panel, history LM 2006-3) and the Leicester Cathedral (e, i).
    Communities and churches dedicated to Martin. Wikipedia lists churches, chapels, cathedrals, abbeys, basilicas, and collegiate churches dedicated to Saint Martin. Also from the bridges of Saint Martin, as in Toledo (link), Martin is the most frequent patronymic in France (see page Wikipedia), Martin / Marten / Maarten / Marti / Martinez / Martins..., Martine in the feminine, are first names widespread in Europe. In France, 246 municipalities (not including Dammartin, Dommartin, Martainville, Martigny, Pleumartin...) and more than 3,700 churches bear his name [Wikipedia]. More than 500 monuments are dedicated to him in Spain, also in Germany, more than 700 in Italy, more than 350 in Hungary, more than 150 in Croatia, almost a hundred in Slovenia... [LM 2008-2]
    Other countless dedications to Martin of Tours. And there are the localities, such as the St. Martin's Stone in Chaussitre, commune of Saint-Genest-Malifaux in the Loire or the impressive rock Saint-Martin de Saint Dié des Vosges [flickr floribes]. And Martin fountains, Martin caves... This page from Wikipedia lists Martin towns, Martin islands (Saint Martin in the West Indies, link), cape, lake, river... Let's add a photo of the Saint Martin waterfalls in Argentina.

    A multitude of Saint Martin's churches Here is a very short chronological selection of Saint Martin's churches, all in France, listed as historical monuments : 1) Xth century Béthisy Saint Martin (Oise) (+ view of interior), 2) XIIth Gignac (Lot) (+ view of interior), 3) XVIth Moutiers (Ile et Vilaine) (+ view of interior, link), 4) XXth The Cellar (Loire Atlantique) (+ view of interior + fresco by Paul and Albert Lemasson 1925-1932, link). + page with other Saint Martin churches. + the church of St. Martin de Castelnau-Montratier in the Lot department, which bears some external resemblance to the Touraine basilica (link).
    Over the centuries, thousands of Saint Martin's churches have been erected. This page from Wikipedia, this search from, and this 50 or so pages from the shutterstock site showcase just a few.

    Martin and the Architects. There is, of course, no architecture unique to Saint Martin monuments. That is no reason to salute the variety of achievements. Here are four of them. 1) the chapel se Saint Martin le Vieux in the Pyrenees (+ views commented from outside, link), 2) the abbey of Saint Martin aux Bois in Picardy (+ engraving Lecoy 1881) (+ views), 3) the chapel of Saint Martin de Peille, next to Monaco (another link) (+ description), 4) St. Martin's Church in Budapest (link) (+ views). The Saint Martin de Triel sur Seine church has the particularity of having a particularly complex architecture, coming from different periods ; Links : 1 2 3.
    Nineteenth century engravings. In 1881, Albert Lecoy de la Marche, in his book "Saint Martin" (Lecoy 1881) listed, diocese by diocese, all the Saint Martin churches in France, with a panel of illustrations. Here are those not shown elsewhere on this page, with also some buildings outside France : Laon (link), Montmorency (collegiate church, link), Champs (collegiate church, link), Saint Martin de Londres in Herault (link), Argentan, Benefit (link), Vendôme (tower, link), Etampes (collegiate church with its leaning tower, photo [LM 2008-2], link), Clamecy (link), Valmeroux (link), Pont-à-Mousson (link), Vevey (Switzerland) (link), Souillac (link), Saint Martin sur Armençon (abbey, Yonne), Laigle (link, Normandy), Saint Martin sur Arve (link, Savoie), Marseille , Schwyz (Switzerland, link), Baar (Switzerland Canton of Zug, link), Canterbury (England) (link), Naples (cloister, Italy), Ravenna (Italy), San Martino delle Scale (Italy, link), Oberwesel (Germany), Cologne (Germany) (link), Segovia (link, Spain), Compostela (Spain) (monastery, link). The engravings signed "H. Toussaint" are by Henri Toussaint.

    Paris and Martin. 1) The port Saint Martin since the 10th century + engraving showing the Saint Martin gate, part of the Charles V enclosure, in the Middle Ages [Lecoy 1881], 2) the priory Saint Martin des Champs since 1135 + article Fasc. NR 2012 + view overview [Charles Fichot, link] + four illustrations by Lecoy 1881 : 1 2 3 4 + other view, 3) the theater at St. Martin's Gate since 1781 (here circa 1790), 4) the channel Saint Martin since 1825 [Wikipedia links and illustrations]. Also a boulevard, street, suburb, market, parking lot, school. 5) Martinus passed through the city of the Gauls Parisii and is said to have cured a leper at its gates (at his gate...), as shown in the illustration to the right ["Martinellus" 1110, BmT]. Tradition has it that this kiss to the leper happened in the rue Saint Martin (an old Roman road) in the vicinity of the present-day church of Saint Nicolas des Champs. + three pages of LM 2017 : 1 2 3.

    The Saint Martin bridges of Pont-Saint-Martin in Valle d'Aosta (Italy), of Vienne in Isère and on the Guiers Vif, also in Isère. The first is of Roman origin and it is quite likely that Martin crossed it. It is also possible for the ancient predecessor of the second one. The third one dates from the 18th century, with no antecedent [links and illustrations Wikipedia]. + the Saint Martin's Bridge of Tolède : engraving [Lecoy 1881], photo [Wikipedia].

    The density of Saint Martin churches by dioceses in France and the dioceses with the highest density. This map is based on the survey made by François Christian Semur in his Semur 2015. + the three pages giving the details of this count : 1 2 3. Below right the number of toponyms Saint Martin by country [GeoNames database].

    Lyon and Martin. The curious can contemplate another basilica dedicated to Martin in France. In the heart of Lyon, the basilica Saint Martin d'Ainay, wanted by Queen Brunehaut, mentioned by Gregory of Tours. + three links : 1 (patrimoine.lyon) 2 (wiki history) 3 [flickr photo album Kristobalite, 2 excerpts above left]. + view of interior + tympanum (link) + view aerial (link) Then depiction of Martin on a mural by Hippolyte Flandrin, 1855, on the apse vault + close-up view [flickr ChristianLeduc]. Five miles north of Lyon (now in the 9th arrondissement), the abbey of Saint Martin de l'île-Barbe, on the Saône River, is the oldest monastic foundation in the diocese of Lyon, certified created at the beginning of the 5th century (Mexme / Maxime, a disciple of Martin, stayed there around 430 before moving to Chinon). + presentation 2018 of the basilica by Paul-Andreé Bryon.
    Liege and Martin. On the right the basilica of Saint Martin in Liege + engraving Lecoy 1881 + visit guiding 2015 + history of Eracle / Heraclius, founder of this basilica in 965 after his recovery in Tours (link). + presentation 2015 of the basilica by J.-P. Huyts. Below is the building in 1735 drawn by Remacle the Wolf and recent 3D model (link).

    St. Martin's Basilica in Taal, Philippines, for these four illustrations [photos Ryan Sia, Wikipedia] + links : 1 [The NR] 2 3. Founded in the 16th century, it was rebuilt several times and measures 89 meters long and 48 wide.
    The other Saint Martin basilicas. In addition to those of Tours, Rome, Taal, Ainay in Lyon and Liège already seen, here are the other basilicas dedicated to Martin of Tours (some are attached to an abbey) (Wikipedia illustrations, e = exterior view, i = interior view) : Six in Germany Bingen am Rheim (e, i, link), Ulm-Wiblingen (e, i), Weingarten (e, i), Amberg (e, i), landshut (e, i), and Bonn (e, i), six in Italy Bologna (e, i), Magenta (e, i, engraving Lecoy 1881), ), Treviglio (e, i), Martina Franca (e, i) Alzano (e, i) Palermo / Monreale (e, i) and elsewhere Hal (Belgium) (e, i), Mondonedo (Spain) (e, i), Venlo (Netherlands) (e, i), Aime la Plagne (France, unofficial, link) (e, i).
    Far from Europe... In Louisiana, Martinville has had its St. Martin Church since 1765 (views : e i, link + presentation). Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, has had St. Martin as its patron saint since 1580 (+ two articles from La NR : 1 2) and India's capital city, New-Dehli has a Church of Saint Martin [LM 2009-1]. The church of St. Martin the highest, at 3967 meters above sea level, is in Potosi, Colombia LM 2018]. Far from Europe, we can also mention one of the oldest churches in Chile, in Codpa, dedicated to Martin since 1618 (views : e i), the church in Mpandangindo, Tanzania and a chapel high up in Parras, Mexico LM 2018].

    Sculpted and painted facades, also the painted spandrels and pediments. For carved tympanums and pediments, see below. Two beautiful church fronts: the Basilica of San Martino in Martina Franca in Italy in Puglia (link + central sculpture, 1753 work of Giuseppe Morgese and his sons) and the church of Sant Marti of Sant Celoni in Catalonia (decorations completed in 1762, link, statue central of Martin made in 1953 by Lluís Montané). Facades can also be painted, as on the left, a house in Wangen im Allgäu in Germany [flickr caminanteK] And like these twelve there, including tympanums and pediments painted : 1 church of St. Martin de Tarbes ["Lettre martinienne" 2006-1] 2 Beuron Abbey in Germany [flickr Meinolf Schumacher] 3 house in Fribourg, Switzerland [flickr Hurni Christoph] 4 church of Tromello in Italy [link + zoom back] 5 house in the same town of Tromello (in Aosta Valley, on the way to Sabaria / Szombathely) 6 church of San Martino Siccomario in Italy [Wikipedia] 7 church of Palestro in Italy [link + zoom back] 8 house in Tropello, Italy [LM 2008-1] 9 building in Pamplona in Spain [LM 2009-1]. 10 Pannonhalma Abbey in Hungary [Semur 2015] 11 St. Martin's Church in St. Martin du Limet [Semur 2015] 12 church of Siccomario in Italy [Semur 2015].

    The "Lettre martinienne" 2006-1, in a caption of photo of the Prieuré St Martin de Cézas, in the Gard region, exposes one of the reasons for the dedication to Martin of many ancient monuments : "The elevated situation of the Priory can make one suppose that it was built on a sacred place frequented since the highest antiquity and that pagan cults must have succeeded one another there until Christianity : mounds and hills receiving the first rays of the sun and the last, signaled, indeed, in the eyes of our distant ancestors, a divine presence. On the other hand, the dedication to St. Martin, very common, especially near the old roads, would also be an indication of the recovery of pagan beliefs: St. Martin, a great missionary traveler, had indeed struggled to fight against these cults and we gave his name as a way of exorcism, chapels built in place of ancient pagan temples. "

    Saint Martin's chapels galore. Sometimes in ruins, thanks to those who restore... 1) Générouillas in the commune of Saint Pardoux le lac in Limousin + description (link). 2) Sunrise in Switzerland, in the hermitage of Verena Gorge [flickr Hurni Christoph]. 3) Chapel St Martin of the commune of Saint Victor la Coste in the Gard + description (link). 4) St. Martin's Chapel of the hermitages del Corb in the Natural Park of the Volcanic Zone of the Garrotxa in Catalonia (link). 5) the chapel of the valley of Saint Martin on the commune of Escles in the Vosges. + ten other chapels St Martin  : 1 1750 to 1Sankt Martin in Lower Austria [flickr Alexander Szep] 2 in Glux en Glenne in Burgundy [flickr Rudy Pické] 3 in Castellane in Provence [flickr Rudy Pické] 4 in Haute-Goulaine near Nantes [flickr vebests] 5 chapel St Martin des Champs in Oltingue in Alsace [flickr JV images] 6 in Nijmegen in the Netherlands [flickr Stewie1980] 7 2004 in Saint Martin in Valais, Switzerland [flickr Jean-Louis Pitteloud] 8 Saint Martin de la Roche chapel / Sant Marti de la Roca in the Eastern Pyrenees, flickr Patrick Chabert] 9 chapel of Kobilje in Slovenia [LM 2008-1] 10 2017 in North Tours (link). There are also church and cathedral chapels, such as the one at St Julien de Tours church seen below.
    In Italy campaniles. Looking like bell towers with nothing around them, in Italy you can find campaniles Saint Martin's like these three : 1 to Bollengo [flickr Bruno Barbero]. 2 at Burano [flickr Maya HK] 3 to Bollengo [flickr mpvicenza].
    For the beauty of the setting, Let's add sixteen more monuments dedicated to Saint Martin taken from the flickr  catalog: 1 the church of Liechtenstein [Cmemens v. Vogelsang] 2 the ruins of the abbey of Fara in Sabina in Italy [Andrea Miola] 3 the chapel of Ribéris in the commune of Montfaucon also in the Gard (+ description, link) 4 the church of Chablis in Burgundy [Jean-Jacques Cordier] 5 the church of Taizé in the Deux-Sèvres [GillouBlues] 6 the church of Ammerschwihr in Alsace [pierre simonis] 7 the church in Unteraltertheim in Germany [Claudia G. Kukulka] 8 church in Rosengarten in Germany [Paul McLure] 9 the church of Saint Martin la Garenne in Ile de France [Olive Titus] 10 the church of Fromista in Spain [Fernando Frontela + page Wikimedia] 11 the collégiale de Picquigny in Picardie [roland dumont-renard] 12 Chavot church in Champagne [françois marin] 13 the church on the island of Madeira in Portugal [Christian] 14 church in Navaridas in Spain [Mackedwars] 15 the church of Cadenabbia in Italy [ValKamch] 16 the church of Calonico in Switzerland [Christian Hermann] (below).

    Village Saint Martin. A few houses clustered around a church, villages nestled in nature are visually more appealing than large towns and cities. Here are some of them, with the number of inhabitants in the commune. 1) Saint Martin d'Entraunes in Provence, 130 inhabitants [flickr Gilles Couturier] 2) Saint Martin de Lansuscle in Lozere, 180 inhabitants 3) Saint Martin d'Oydes in Ariège, 220 inhabitants [flickr Dirk Motmans] 4) Saint Martin de Castillon in Provence, 800 inhabitants (link).

    The church of Saint Martin in Artaiz, in the Spanish Basque country (population 50), 25 km from Pamplona. It has many beautiful sculptures in Romanesque art. On the right, Martin seems to be pushing away the three-headed Gallic god + views + links : 1 2 3 4 5.

    The abbey Saint Martin du Canigou, perched at 1055 m above sea level, in the Eastern Pyrenees, erected in 1101 [photo Sandra di Giusto]. Links : 1 2 3 + view of interior + two engravings Lecoy 1881 : 1 2 + page Wikimedia. At right, illustration of an abbey charter from 1195 ["Feudalities", Florian Mazel, Belin 2010]. The Christ in majesty of the Apocalypse, who has returned to judge the living and the dead, is here surrounded on the left by the Virgin Mary and on the right by Martin.

  14. Tidbits of history, legends, relics, demons, mystifications...

    Do the trees of St. Martin have a pagan origin ? This St. Martin's chestnut tree [ link) at Continvoir, near Bourgueil in Touraine, of which only the stump remains, is said to be the one where Martin preached in 388 [left stained glass window of the church of Saint Martin de Continvoir, Manufacture du Mans 1849, Verrières 2018 + photo in context]. It gave its name to a younger chestnut tree [right, photo by Stephan Bonneau] at the nearby place called "La Blotterie".According to Jean-Mary Couderc, in "Arbres remarquables de Touraine" [Berger Editions 2006, photos by S. Bonneau] :"The tradition of the trees of Saint Martin (at Neuvy le Roi, Neuilly le Brignon and La Roche Clermault according to Rabelais) may be related to the existence of pagan sacred trees (successively replaced)  their cult would have long endured and they would have been Christianized by giving them the name of Saint Martin.". In the same way that pagan temples became churches...

    Left, box by Albo Helm in BD Utrecht 2016 + the plank in Dutch and, differently, two boards in French : 1 2 (below right). Center, Feast of St. Martin in Peru in Pomahuaca, photo of the 2014 procession (video) + procession in Italy (link) + image Italian gathering of children with lanterns and sharing of the mantle (link). On the right, folards from Dunkirk (link + recipe) In Dunkirk (poster 2008) and in Flanders, the donkey of Saint Martin is celebrated, his master having transformed his droppings into small loaves of bread called folards (another name : crackers, story, link). + poster 2019 in Lembach in Alsace (link) + image German 2016 (link) And three Venetian delicacies : 1 (link) 2 (link) 3 (link). + document about St. Martin's lanterns in Poland + page La NR 2019 on the "bon pain Saint Martin" of the talmeliers of Touraine + page of LM 2008-4 featuring Saint Martin's feasts in Sweden, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark + the sayings of St. Martin's Day [flickr J. M. Gil Puchol].
    Martin and the geese At Ligugé, peeping geese are said to have warned the people of St. Martin's hiding place, stubbornly refusing his bishop's chair. Account by Jacques-Marie Rougé in Mag. Touraine HS November 2002. Is this a variation of the capitol lanes ? In England Martin is sometimes depicted with a goose, as in this image anonymous from an English site (link), in Croatia often, as with this statue from the monastery of Sumartin ["Martinian Letter" 2006-2]; in Hungary often too, as with this status (link) and on these two charts [Lorincz 200181 [Vogl Gergely ?] 2 [School of Maulbertsch ?] In Touraine, geese are not associated with Martin, with exceptions such as a vitrail from Tours Cathedral, circa 1440 [Verriage 2018]. Geese may even be present at the sharing of the mantle, as in this tableau by an anonymous German in the church of St. Martin in Zusamaltheim (link). And in Jura Switzerland, it's not the geese or the donkey, in Ajoie St. Martin's Day is a pig holiday (link).
    Martinian Recipes. Aurélie Schnel in the Mag. Touraine HS 2015 features three recipes Saint Martin : bread, goose and wildfowl fillets. The 2005 "Martinian Letter" features three of them in two pages : 1 a goose with apples and chestnuts 2 goose cupcakes and bun men. And an idea from Veneto for the dessert [flickr elisabetta].
    St. Martin's Feasts. In northern France and Germany, also in the Netherlands (photo Utrecht 2019, flickr Ms Lowlands) and Poland (document), St. Martin's Day celebrations are still held today on November 10 or 11. In Germany (link), it is the occasion for lantern processions (link) and hearty meals eating a beautiful goose. It becomes the "Festival of Lights" (link). + tableau "The St. Martin's Day Fires " by Martin van Cleve [Dunkirk Museum of Fine Arts] + tableau "Saint Martin's fair" by Pieter Balten [museum of Utrecht]. There are also the fairs (list) and markets of St. Martin's Day... + poster announcing the 2020 Saint Martin's Fair in Montrichard (in Touraine but in the Loir et Cher). The 2005 "Lettre martinienne" features a page of Saint Martin's Day posters. + two Wikipedia pages on Saint Martin's Day celebrations : 1 in Flanders 2 in Germany.

    St. Martin's feasts erased by pagan holidays in 21st century Europe. As briefly noted in the caption above, St. Martin's Day celebrations often change their focus, becoming secular, especially in Germany where they take on the name of the Festival of Lights. Catholics complain about this, as Clementine Jallais in a article concluding thus : "The choice of the name "Festival of Lights" is far from trivial. Certainly, it refers to those multiple torches that accompany the Saint Martin's Day parade. But it is the echo, above all, of these pagan festivals which formerly celebrated the winter solstices or the summer solstices, the beginning of the seasons and their end... Like Lyon, which is gradually erasing the profoundly religious significance of its December 8 in its own Festival of Lights, Germany will undoubtedly, in the end, push its Saint Martin back into the darkness... Thus, it is the progressive return to the ancestral pagan cults, whose universality and antiquity are able to provoke the adhesion of all and a global religious leveling." Yet this is not accompanied by an eradication of the Catholic religion, there is no desire to avenge the eradication of the pagan religion advocated by Martin. And fortunately, there are enough marks of his passage in Europe that he is not relegated to the darkness...

    Statistically, Martinian legends are decayed by their multitude. As seen with the illustrations above, Martinian legends are very diverse and varied. The mark of a step here, a fountain there (example in the country of Urfé, in the Loire)... or a stone or a miracle or an evangelized place... It is certainly possible that real facts have generated the legend, but this concerns only a very limited number and the criteria for recognizing them are tenuous. We find some Christian re-actualizations, such as the one, in Luzillé, of a Neolithic polisher renamed "pierre Saint Martin" (photo with Jean-Mary Couderc's article on the memory of Martin in Touraine, "Le patrimoine des communes d'Indre et Loire", éd. Flohic 2001). Moreover many of them are contradicted by our historical knowledge. Let's take the case of Martin's wine and vineyards.

    Did Martin love good wine?For the Vouvray winemakers, a drink much appreciated by the first editors of the Canard Enchaîné, the asceticism of the monk-bishop is compatible with a legend that attributes to Martin and his monks the introduction of the vine on the hillsides of the Loire. The presence of vines, still today, above the caves of Marmoutier, on the slopes of the place called Rougemont, would have allowed "providing mass wine and feeding the sick and the elderly passing through the convent". Martin is said to have brought back a vine plant from his native Pannonia (Hungary) and invented the white vine. This cultural alibi to advertise an alcoholic beverage (which by its quality does not need it) (see panel from 2016 exhibition in Tours) has distant roots since the 13th century frescoes of the collegiate church of Candes testify to it, presenting the bishop's donkey pruning the vine. Not to mention a "cuvée de Saint Martin, symbole du partage" [link] and, on the Chinon side, the cuvée du partage [link]. Also from the Bourgueil, From the Chablis Saint Martin's a bit of magic, from the Bordeaux [LM 2008-5], and as far back as Prague, bottles labeled Martin (photo, link). Yet archaeological research shows that vines were present in Touraine before the Romans arrived (see "History of the Vine in Touraine," James Derouet 2013). Not to mention the German beer from Kassel (photo, Collective 2019) and Portugal's very good Sao Martinho mineral water (photo, LM 2018).

    To the left Marmoutier with above the hillside the vineyard of Clos de Rougemont. + article from "Tours Infos" 2010 titled "The vines of Marmoutier". In the center, sculpture of Martin's donkey pruning the vine, on the collegiate church of Candes [excerpts from panels of the exhibition "Saint Martin, the Vine and Wine" 2016 in the city of Tours]. At right, sculpture in a cave made of tuffeau in Rochecorbon [Le Magazine de la Touraine n°64, 1997]. + tableau "St. Martin's Wine" by Pieter Brueghel the Elder [Prado Museum in Madrid] with comment and two close-ups [flickr jean louis mezieres] : 1 2.
    The donkey Martin. Wikipedia thus captions a vitrail from Chartres seen earlier  : "St. Martin is depicted riding a donkey, as a sign of humility, while his clerics are mounted on horses. It is as a result of this practice that " more than one donkey is called Martin "" + article LM 2006-2 on the donkey Martin and the vineyard of the abbey of Bourgueil + vitrail 1923 where Martin's donkey gets stuck in a stream [church of Maresché in the Sarthe, link].
    Martin, Corsica, its wine, its churches... Martin is also the patron saint of Corsican winemakers, as he would have taken a little tour around there (link)... cf. this Corsican wine (LM 2008-2), this page from the Semur 2015 and these two paintings in churches in Bastia (link) : 1 [Giovanni Bilivert 1st half of the 17th century] (below) 2 [Anton Benedetto Rostino 1806].

    With all these vintages, Martin could be a bar owner. He is not, but in addition to that of the city of Tours as we have seen, he was designated patron of the Merovingian and Capetian dynasties, then of the marshal-farmers, policemen, commissioners of the armies, of Buenos Aires, of hundreds of municipalities, of thousands of churches. Patron of the Pontifical Swiss Guards (article Fasc. NR 2012), he's also patron saint of pedestrians with this blog  comment: "Basically the guy is saint patron of a little bit of everyone. Except the legless asses, that goes without saying (dixit Georges Brassens)".

    The relics of Martin 1/8: according to the times... Michel Fauquier, in this article from 2019 on the website Aleteia : "With the gradual acceptance by Rome of the Christian religion in its Catholic form, martyrdom had largely faded from the European horizon while, at the same time, churches were flourishing all over Europe, which were in demand of relics of saints to be inserted in altars. Since it was not customary to dismember the bodies of the saints to multiply the number of their relics, the Church was faced with a shortage. However, at the same time, the Catholics found themselves facing violent raids from Germania. [...]Disempowered in the face of these shocks and the threats they carried, Catholics sought even more ardently the protection of the holy bodies  this is why the masses immediately adopted the new model of holiness that an author of the late fourth century, Sulpice Severus, had drawn. This model, he had not invented : it had presented itself to him providentially in the person of Martin of Tours, who thus became the first model of modern sanctity, that is, of non-martyral sanctity. [...] If Sulpice Severus lent Martin of Tours the desire for martyrdom, the fact is that the latter did not undergo it, which did not prevent the former from saying " saint " the latter, from the first words of his work, before proclaiming him " apostle of the Gauls " in a later work."

    Today's relic-gadgets... Good luck charms? Here are successively : 1) a medallion + thirteen other medals : 1 2 3 4, 5 6 7 8, 9 10 11 12 [flickr Army Chaplain Corps] 13 LM 2018]. The particular case of the médaille 2016 of the Lecerf jeweler from Tours installed at the foot of the clock tower, two articles from La NR : 1 2 (lien vidéo). 2) a key ring + four others  1 2 3 4, 3) one pin. + four other pins : 1 2 3 4. 4) a kind of miniature oratory (English language), resuming a famous painting, visible in part on the present page, with indication of its famous author (look it up...). 5) A pious image and fourteen others "Ora pro nobis" / "Pray for us" : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 (link). 6) Hardcover image And twenty others with no stated religious character : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 (+ its figure). Below is a "glazing" (Switzerland). Religious Suites 2/8, 3/8, 4/8, 5/8, 6/8, 7/8, 8/8.

    Are stamps other modern relics? With the ubiquitous sharing of the mantle. 1) Germany 1984 2) France 2017 3) France 1960 4) Monaco 1948 5) Czechoslovakia 6) Hungary 2011 7) Luxembourg 1980 + twenty-one other stamps : 1 Belgium 2 Germany 3 Rwanda 1967 (cancelled) 4 Belgium 1941 5 Belgium 1948 6 Belgium 1941 7 Austria 1985 8 France 9 Belgium 1911 10 France 11 Austria 1936 12 Austria 1999 13 Czechoslovakia 1999 14 Austria 15 Germany 16 Hungary 2016 17 Argentina 1968 (link) 18 Hungary 1972 [flickr isa 11] 19 Portugal [flickr quevedodovale] 20 Belgium 1910 21 Germany 2011 [flickr isa 11] + two stamps from Saudi Arabia [LM 2008-2] + page of LM 2006-1 + page of LM 2006-2 + these two pages : 1 2.

    Martin and his demons. The demons and the devil are ubiquitous in Martinian stories. These apparitions make sense, after all, for an exorcist, whose function is to confront them with mystical exhortations. Jacques Verrière : "In short, grimacing devils are waving, cackling and yelping on many stained glass windows dedicated to Saint Martin, and it has been so since at least the thirteenth century. No one will be surprised, as this is in keeping with a Christianity obsessed with sin. The discourse of the Church was guilt-ridden and punitive. [...]Martin's devils on the stained glass windows were put at the service of a theology that burdened the sinner, whereas Martin only ever sought to free him. In this respect again, Martin's message has been used, accommodated to later theological understandings, and, to some extent, subverted." [Stained Glass 2018].

    On the left, the exorcist Martin expels the demon from the body of a possessed man through his ass [Tours Cathedral, bay #8, Verry 2018]. Then Martin unmasks a trick of the devil ["Martinellus" 1110, BmT] (link + release supplemented and commented on in Lecoy 1881). Then "Appearance of the devil to Saint Martin" [cathedral of Belluno in Veneto]. On the right, the pagan gods are for Martin demons to be slaughtered [church of Saint Martin in Clamecy, Burgundy]. + three other stained glass windows where Martin scares away a demon : 1 [Bourges Cathedral] 2 [Saint Martin de Tours basilica, Lobin workshop, Verriere 2018] 3 [Church of St. Martin de Saussey in Manche, link]. + plank from Maric - Frisano 1994 telling of a meeting of Martin and Satan. Other illustrations about Martin and his demons : below.

    Surprise: Martin would have also shared his coat with the devil!. It was the illustrious painter Raphael who drew this smoky scene. This deserved an explanation, provided by Albert Lecoy de la Marche [Lecoy 1881]. On the right, another surprise, it's a horned bishop with hooked feet attacking Martin, on a wall fresco in the church of St. Salvadoor in Pavia, Italy [Semur 2015]

    Until the 19th century, a sanitization of the figure of Martin. Michel Fauquier continues : "The episcopate sought to oppose to Saint Martin of Tours, another model that was more presentable in his eyes : he threw his lot with St. Germain of Auxerre [380-448], a former very high official who became a bishop late in life, whom we have proposed to look upon as the " Martin of the heart of bishops" . In spite of everything, the Life of Saint Germain of Auxerre, composed between 470 and 480 by Constance of Lyon, succeeds more in "episcopalizing " the figure of Saint Martin, than it erases him to the profit of Saint Germain : it is indeed that of the first that was imposed throughout Western Europe, but it now showed a St. Martin mitred, gloved, wearing his episcopal crosier, a chasuble and even... a pallium that he never received ! In a word, a perfectly presentable St. Martin of Tours, represented as all bishops were. In this sense, the figure of Saint Martin of Tours had an exemplary destiny: it gave a central role to the heroicity of virtues - which was to be recognized as the first condition sine qua non allowing to open a process of canonization, when this procedure was set at the turn of the eleventh-thirteenth centuries -, but his " episcopalization " opened another trend, that of presenting to the faithful what Jacques Fontaine rightly called " stained glass saints ", giving a smooth image of the saints sometimes very far from what they were actually." These stained glass images of the saint, sanitized, still predominate. When will they be considered dated and unsuitable, as much as the images of Martin knight in medieval dress and decor ?

    What is the most absurd legend about Martin?There is an embarrassment of riches, some would say. I choose the legend of the swift. In the Catalogue 2016, Ingrid Leduc tells it like this  "This bird devours the bunches of ripe grapes to the great despair of the vintners. These implored Martin to come to their aid. To contain the birds, the saint placed a cross in the vineyards and the birds came to land on it, obeying the saint whose name they took." The martinet is an extraordinary migratory bird that prefers cities to the countryside, never eats grapes but only insects, never lands except to lay eggs, hatch and take care of its young in the nest, remaining for months constantly in the air. In short, it is a lord of the air who does not look at all like the thief described... Fortunately, Sulpice Severus never told such nonsense... Beyond that, there are legends which were never believed but which made one dream so strange they were. Thus that of "Saint Martin Faucheur" told in a page of the "Magazine de la Touraine" special edition "Contes et légendes de Touraine", 2002 (cover).

    Martin's mother: post-medieval delusion!. In 1572, an illumined man published a kind of ancient science-fiction with as heroine a daughter of a king of Constantinople, the beautiful Helaine, to whom stories happen and who becomes the mother of St. Martin and St. Brice (let's remember that they were born 60 years apart...). This work, of which two editions are known, is titled "Le rommant de la belle Helaine de Constantinople, mère de sainct Martin de Tours en Touraine et de sainct Brice son frère". Illustrations: covers of two editions, close-up of the second, two other images. + Link to a transcript on the site of the Lisieux media library, + three complete editions of about one hundred pages [Gallica] : 1 2 3. Below excerpt from Martin's genealogy composed by Ambroise de Cambray for Louis XI (P.-S.) [archives dep. 37].

    Martin of royal blood? Several accounts like to tell that Martin would be of high royal nobility. In addition to the far-fetched one of the beautiful Helaine presented above, Narcisse Cruchet and Augustin-Hubert Juteau, in their 1885 book "Popular History of Saint Martin" tell this story  "He has been lent a genealogy whose pomp would be the envy of the most illustrious races. According to the story of the Sleeping Seven, Florus, king of the Huns, in the time of Diocletian and Maximian, married a young princess of rare beauty, Brichilda, daughter of Chut, king of the Saxons  he had three sons, Florus, Hilgius, Amnar. The eldest son obtained in his turn the hand of Constance, sister of Julian the Apostate, who made him father of Saint Martin. Close relative of the Caesars, allied on the other hand to the kings of England, the apostle of the Gauls would certainly have donned the purple and girded the royal crown of Hungary, if he had not left everything to become a monk." Martin nephew of the emperor Julian, cousin (great-uncle?) of the future Attila (born in 395)... On this basis, King Louis XI had Martin's "authentic genealogy" drawn up on a huge parchment (excerpt illustrated, BmT), Maupoix 2018). These two elucidations, Julien's nephew and Helaine's son, are presented in a double-page spread of Lecoy 1881.

    St. Martina, a deception among others. If this account of the Vita Martini, appears globally credible and if the refusal of slavery, described in other anecdotes, appears certain, there is reason to doubt many other episodes revealed late. There are even cases where we are sure that the life of a saint was completely invented. This is already very likely for Gatian and James of Compostela, already mentioned, and it is even more obvious for Saint Martine. From a tomb discovered in 1634, a stitched-together novel (told on this page) was invented, as also indicated by the page Wikipedia. The link with Martin seems to be absent, we can assume that there was not yet a Saint Martine and that it seemed appropriate to create one, each name should have its saint or saint... Between what is certain and what is not at all, there is a whole range of probabilities that it is difficult to apprehend... + two stained glass windows by Martine (Nhuan DoDuc site) : 1 [St. Martine's Church of Chateau Bridge] 2 [Church of the Assumption in Montpeyroux in Puy de Dôme].

    Have yesterday's saints turned into superheroes? That's the question the newspaper "La Vie" asks in a article from 2014 (link). The philosopher Paul Clavier provides some interesting answers, comparing superheroism and holiness, superpowers and miracles... And we can only compare Superman's red cape and his way of dominating the situation with another red cape and another domination from atop his horse... In his book "Martin of Tours, Life and Posthumous Glory" (1996), Charles Lelong presents some of the exploits of the superhero saints told a little before the Vita of Sulpice Severus. In the life of Anthony, written by Athanasius around 357 : "We see the saint fighting with the devil, driving away wild beasts with a word, making water gush out in the middle of the desert, healing at a distance, benefiting from the gift of double sight". In "Life of Saint Hilarion" written by Jerome  "Hilarion is presented as endowed with unheard of powers, exorcising a camel, paralyzing pirates, stopping a huge tidal wave". So when Sulpice Severus, lulled by these accounts, as also his interlocutors to another degree, declares "Everything I have said, everything I am going to say, I have seen myself or I have it from a certain source, most often from Martin himself", it is understandable that the most recent historians have tried to disentangle the true from the false...

    [corrected stained glass window from the church in Mosne, Touraine, and poster from the film "Man of steel" 2013]. Whose cape is it?

  15. Eighteen centuries of books about Martin and a powerful contemporary revival

    The long list of works devoted to Martin. We have made their acquaintance or will do so in other chapters : Sulpice Severus, Pauline of Nole, Venance Fortunat, Pauline of Perigueux, Gregory of Tours, each, writing in Latin, had his style. In the Catalog 2016, in a article "From the Vita sancti Martini (396) to the Mystery of St. Martin (1496) : eleven centuries of writing and rewriting to the glory of the bishop of Tours" (link), Sylvie Labarre finely analyzes the evolution of writings on the life of Martin, summarizing "an immense work of rewriting undertaken through the centuries by writers anxious to celebrate the sanctity and miracles of the bishop of Tours and to edify their readers through the exposition of an exemplary life." She believes that the first of these, Sulpice Severus, "wrote prose capable of seducing both Christian and pagan scholars and his concern was primarily to persuade the unbelievers." It deals with the writings of the fifth and sixth centuries of Paulinus of Nole, Venance Fortunat, Paulinus of Perigueux, Gregory of Tours, and then, after rewrites in verse or prose from the seventh to the twelfth century  "it is with works written in French that Martin truly enters the medieval cultural universe and his gesture renews itself." Martin can thus become the grandson of a king of Hungary, a knight adored by Emperor Constance II, fighting the Saracens... The reading of the original text becomes more accessible to us. Here are some of the most prominent of these books, first up to the nineteenth century.

     1  2  3  5  6  8
            4       7

    1) A parchment book of 217 illustrated leaves (16x22 cm), with about twenty miniature paintings, "Life and Miracles of St. Martin of Tours," ca. 1110 [BmT] + view of illustrated pages (link).
    With Martin's help, Prefect Arborius forces his daughter to become a nun. The illustration on the left, which thus dates to about 1110, is impressive for showing a scene in which a father forces his daughter, obviously against her will, to enter a nunnery, as indicated in the description of the Maupoix 2018.
    2) "Life and Miracle of St. Martin of Tours," text by Péan Gâtineau (259 leaves 18.5x29 cm), 12th or 13th century (complete in box below 1300 + the page most illustrated, with gros-plan on the lettering) [BnF].
    The Martinellus. 3) These are collections of texts relating to Martin (Sulpice Severus, Gregory of Tours...), whose content is subject to variation. They are of Frankish and then French or German origin.Here, a chapter head of a set of 160 leaves (19.5x27 cm), in a version dated between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries [BmT]. The earliest known Martinellus, written in Tours dates from the first quarter of the ninth century, in the hand of the priest Adalbaldus, by order of the abbot of St. Martin Fredegisus. It is at the BnF. For more details on the early Martinellus, see pages 800-802 of Luce Pietri's dissertation.
    4) The Golden Legend is a famous manuscript (a bestseller...) by the Archbishop of Genoa Jacques de Voragine, written in Latin from 1261 to 1265, of which more than a thousand handwritten copies, numerous translations, and numerous printed editions are known (several on Gallica), with or without illustrations. The author tells the life of 150 saints, including Martin and Brice. The illustration on Martin is obviously the one of the shared cloak. + three variants : 1 2 [circa 1370, Mazarine Library, Paris, Catalogue 2016] 3 [Maupoix 2018]. 5) "The Life of Saint Martin Bishop of Tours" by Nicolas Gervaise, 1699 (complete in the box below 1699). + five other views : 1 2 3 4 5. 6) Ernest-Charles Babut's work in 1912, 320 pages, finally allows us to get out of the moralizing hagiography. 7) The first of Jacques Fontaine's three volumes on the study of the texts of Sulpice Severus (360 pages, in 1967) (a 4th volume "Gallus" is added). Also worth mentioning is Paul Monceaux's "Saint Martin" in 1926 (256 pages) + cover + critique by Fernand Vercauteren, 1928.
    8) Lecoy 1881. The large red book titled "Saint Martin" by Albert Lecoy de la Marche published in 1881 by Mame (in Tours), 770 pages (20.5x28 cm) was an event, both for the text, which was then intended to be almost exhaustive on all that concerned Martin, and for the illustrations, numerous and remarkable, largely repeated along this page, made by some forty artists presented on a page composed by Luc-Olivier Merson. Even the initial chapter lettering is elaborate (example with Adam and Eve). The first page is indicative of the desire to tell "the substitution of Christianity for idolatry." See the box below for the date 1881 and 1895 for an unabridged and a half unabridged. + a page of text in the presentation of the Saint Martin buildings. + article account by Alexandre Bruel in 1881).

    Books about Martin available in full on the Gallica website
    The site Gallica, part of the BnF, makes downloadable books available. Here are some, by year of publication, that deal with Martin of Tours (+ search page with criteria "Martin" and "Tours"). 837 "Martinellus," a Carolingian version, 240 pages. 1300 "The Life of Saint Martin of Tours," by Péan Gâtineau, 520 pages. 1435, excerpt from eleven illustrated pages (638v to 643v, link) on Martin in the Salisbury Breviary. 1496 "The Life and Miracles of Monseigneur Saint Martin, translated from Latin into Francoys," color version printed by Mathieu Latheron, 220 pages, numerous illustrations (see box below). 1699 "The Life of Saint Martin," by Nicolas Gervaise, 454 pages (above 5). 1852 "History of Saint Martin, Bishop of Tours," by Achille Dupuy, 504 pages. 1859 "Saint Martin, Bishop of Tours," by Mathilde Bourdon, 100 pages. 1861 "Life of St. Martin," by Stern Sulpice, Jean-Jacques Bourassé, Richard Viot, 133 pages. 1861 "Life of Saint Martin and the Principal Military Saints," 64 pages. 1864 "Saint Martin of Tours," by Maxime de Montrond, 238 pages + illustration. 1864 "Historical figure of St. Martin, a study of his role and influence," by Casimir Chevalier, 24 pages. 1864 "Life of St. Martin of Tours," by Jacques Jeancard, Bishop of Ceramics, 264 pages. 1865 "Saint Martin and his Basilica," by Victor Alet, of the Society of Jesus, 71 pages. 1875 "Life of Saint Martin, Bishop of Tours," by Louis Baguet, pastor of Béhéricourt, 195 pages. 1876 "L'esprit de saint Martin," by Marc de l'Hermite, 88 pages. 1876 "Life of Saint Martin, Bishop of Tours," by D. S., 216 pages. 1881 "Saint Martin," by Albert Lecoy de la Marche, 770 pages (above 6). 1885 "Popular History of Saint Martin," by Narcisse Cruchet and Augustin-Hubert Juteau, priests of the Diocese of Tours, 210 pages. 1895 "The Life of Saint Martin," by Albert Lecoy de la Marche, 400 pages, shortened version of the 1881 edition (above 6). 1897 "Life of St. Martin Illustrated," by Rene des Chesnais, 224 pages. Adding works from the SAT and the book 1908 by Canon Edgard-Raphaël Vaucelle "The Collegiate Church of Saint-Martin of Tours from the Origins to the Advent of the Valois (397-1328)", 472 pages (with a list of abbots, deans, treasurers, cantors...). + link to a bibliography.

    Four other "Lives of St. Martin". 1) Martin on his donkey, one of the illustrations from the 1496 book shown in the box below. 2) work of the same title, in a popular black-and-white version of about 100 leaves, "The life and miracles of my lord Saint Martin translated from Latin into French" circa 1500, pilgrimage booklet + a double page [BmT, Catalog 2016]. 3) "The Life of St. Martin the Merciful, Bishop of Tours" circa 1700, by Dimitri of Rostov, a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church, presents an Orthodox Christian view of Martin ; here in a 2009 reprint from the "Benedictine Editions. 4)"Saint Martin of Tours," a 1925 Belgian book by Marcellin Lissorgues, a priest from Cantal.
    1496: a superb illuminated book on Saint Martin offered to the king of France. "La vie et miracles de monseigneur saint Martin translatée de latin en français," Mathieu Latheron for Jean de Liège (Jean de Marneffe), 1496, color version, is one of the first printed books in the still modest library of King Charles VIII at the castle of Plessis lès Tours [BnF, three known examples, integral in the box above 1496] + analysis by Pierre Aquilon in the book "Tours 1500 capitale des arts", 2012. In addition to the illustration above left, here are some of the 97 miniatures in the book, first four with the devil : 1 2 3 4, + three resurrections : 1 2 3 + three temple or tree destruction : 1 2 3 + then fourteen more on saints or scenes featured on this page, Martin being a bishop (the tiara !) or in his tomb/hunt : 1 (the poor man of Amiens) 2 (Marmoutier) 3 (the Paris leper) 4 (Valentinian) 5 (Maurice) 6 (Mexme) 7 (Ambroise) 8 (Gatian !) 9 (Hilaire !) 10 (Cararic king of Galicia) 11 (Clovis before the tomb) 11 (Battle of Vouillé) 12 (the Normans) 13 (the leper of Auxerre) 14 (return from Auxerre).

    Ernest-Charles Babut: deconstruction or hyper-criticism? In 1912, the historian Ernest-Charles Babut, born in 1875, who died in 1916 in the 1914-18 war, took a thorough look at the work of Sulpice Severus. He most vigorously "demolished" both the biographer and his hero, denouncing the Vita Martini as a "imposter" and a "tissue of false tales," looking at Martin as a mediocre character, bizarre, with little authority over his clergy and little prestige among his confreres, "perhaps of all the bishops of Gaul the one who seemed least designated for ecclesiastical glory" : it is the best-selling success of the Vita that would have created from scratch the popularity, finally universal, of the bishop of Tours (according to a article by Jean-Rémy Palanque in 1969, one may also read René Aigrain's study, from 1921). These heavy and ferocious accusations, it was demonstrated in particular by Jacques Fontaine, were based on erroneous postulates, contrary to other historical sources. But not all of them are to be rejected (notably his questions about the date of death of Martin?). A second Babut, from the XXIst century, rid of the defects of the first, taking into account the last works, would be welcome... Complements : a analysis by Sylvain Sanchez, 2012, taking up words from Charles Péguy, his necrology by Joseph Calmette, 1919, the biography of his father, Charles Edouard, a minister.

    Ernest-Charles Babut (1835-1916): died in the 1914/18 war, like 18 million other victims whom Martin, nor his god, could save. His official given names are Ernest Theodore. He was an associate professor of history.

    Martin: hilarious fables ? Photo of this page from 2016 of the site "La Rotative" relying on Babut's work to harshly criticize the municipality of Tours, beginning thus : "On the boulevard that crosses the city from east to west, an exhibition entitled "From Martin to Saint Martin: his life, his legends" is proposed to the gaze of passersby. On red columns stamped "JC Decaux" and "Ville de Tours", one is entitled to a collection of fables that would be hilarious if the city hall did not try to pass them off as truths. Martin healing a possessed man, Martin healing a leper, Martin's relics repelling invaders...". Jacques Fontaine and Bruno Judic are also quoted, almost in support of Babut, for a substantiated article.

    These barely written words are bolstered by the knowledge of an article by Robert Beck in the conclusion of the Collective 2019. Excerpts  "Ernest-Charles Babut's 1912 book on St. Martin constitutes a true historical work : a study that applies the most rigorous and modern historical method by relying on a large corpus of sources. This book, presented as the result of extensive research, proposes a true deconstruction of the Martinian figure. [...]Babut notes numerous chronological inconsistencies that, as an example, oppose the possibility of a stay of St. Martin with Hilary in Poitiers." Beck shows the good reception of this study before the War of 14 (for example this article by René Massigli in 1913), and its complete rejection after the war, when Martin appears as a figure of patriotism. If this does not really call into question Jacques Fontaine's very solid criticisms (and already sketched in 1913 in the conclusion of the aforementioned article), a less systematically incriminating rereading of Babut, with a twenty-first century perspective, would be timely.

    In his book "Vie et culte de saint Martin" (1990), Charles Lelong discusses, far from later representations, the physical appearance and lifestyle of Martin : "His putting always remained pitiful : shaven head, hairless forehead and unkempt beard, dirty and unsearchable clothes, especially the large black coat of rough hair, shaped like a sack, girded with coarse ropes, thrown over a rough tunic... He made his diocesan rounds on foot, in a boat or on a donkey like Christ. He refused to receive visitors of high rank at his table and did not accept any of their gifts to preserve his poverty. He hardly allowed a queen to stay with him for a moment, preached virginity, and exalted continence... Like Anthony, he forbade himself laughter and tears...".

    The personality of Martin. Charles Lelong also paints a portrait of the military man turned bishop-monk. He is at the same time "taciturn, shy, self-effacing" and "biting, violent, aggressive", sensitive, nervous, failing, energetic, diplomatic, devout, fanatical, having "a somewhat short doctrine", "simple but familiar with the greats", combative, courageous, generous, of "natural illumination". His "contrasting qualities and flaws", his "false weakness" are more "of nuance than of real contradictions". He has an "unusual strength of character to assume his marginality". Analyzing this portrait, Michel Carrias, in a article from 1997, summarizes him as follows: "With his flaws : stiffness, credulity, fanaticism against pagans, lack of scope that prevented him from " imposing himself as the leader of a party ... ; which are " the reverse side of what makes... the greatness of the character : the total sincerity of his faith and an inflexible fidelity to his convictions ". Paul Mattei, in a article from 2005 considers Martin to be a "bishop out of the box(s)," first a monk, but a monk having fulfilled himself in his mission as a bishop. Camille Julian, a leading historian of Gaul, estimates, in a article from 1923 (part 4), that Martin was a great traveler, "man of action, knowing how to organize and command, a very sound intelligence, a very straight will," more than a thaumaturgist or ascetic. + seven other articles by Jullian on Martin : 1 (part 1) 2 (part 2) 3 (part 3) 4 (other part 2, = 5 ?) 5 (part 6) 6 (sources) 7 (youth).

    Was Martin illiterate? Sulpice Severus writes, about Martin  "I have never heard from any other mouth so much knowledge, so much intelligence, so much talent as to the quality and purity of expression. Besides, in view of Martin's "virtues", how thin is this praise ! Except that it is astonishing that to an illiterate man, not even this grace was lacking." Olivier Guillot, in his "Saint Martin apostle of the poor" of 2008  "The fact is that Martin seems to be the only bishop of his time to whom one dared to attach this epithet of illiterate. Our conviction is that this was fully justified". This opinion is not shared by all historians, since Martin may have learned the basics of reading at Ligugé.

    The canonization of Martin. Dominique-Marie Dauzet, in his book "Saint Martin of Tours" (Fayard 1996) : "At that time the canonization, understood in the current sense of the term, did not exist. [...]The worship of the martyrs by the faithful was immediate. [...]They kept precisely in memory the date of the "depositio" of the deceased in the tomb, and celebrated its anniversary, which they recorded in the calendar of their community. The Christians who came to pray over the grave and ask for special graces were themselves the guarantors of the "sanctity" of the deceased. The inscription by the bishop or his clergy of the anniversary in the list of liturgical feasts had sufficient value of "canonization"." Then : "When it comes to popular "canonization", the case of Martin is probably the most extraordinary of its kind, and first of all because he is the first non-martyr saint to have experienced such popularity. [...]But also his case is exceptional because his reputation is such already during his lifetime that the faithful surround him with practices ordinarily reserved for deceased martyrs."

    Paradoxical cult. An October 1997 article in the magazine "L'Histoire" (No. 214) emphasizes the contradictions between the cult of Martin and his life : "We can see the accumulation of favorable conjunctures that helped ensure the popularity of the cult of Saint Martin : a charismatic personality, a biographer of great talent, successors who made themselves impresarios, a prince of great stature [Clovis, we can also add Charlemagne and Hugues Capet] putting his dynasty under his patronage. Not without generating some amusing paradoxes. The rebellious soldier supported the warlike enterprises of an unscrupulous conqueror. The ascetic assured his city and his clergy the manna of royal generosity. The bishop without culture whom his colleagues despised benefited from the admiration of a great writer. The tomb of the one who had wanted to be buried almost anonymously in a public cemetery was surmounted by one of the most sumptuous basilicas of the early Middle Ages. Yet, if the paths of his posthumous glory have sometimes taken curious paths, Martin has always been, for popular devotion, the man with the shared cloak, the patron saint of the excluded, the saint of immediate and effective solidarity."

    An expurgated history In 2016, the city of Tours celebrated the 1700th anniversary of the birth of its second bishop (document municipal). If it is natural that we celebrate a character who allowed, through his successors, the city to develop until it became the political and cultural capital of France at the end of the fifteenth century, there is reason to be surprised that we persist in erasing the dark sides of the character to practice only hagiography. His long military past, his destruction of the Gallic heritage, his intolerance, whether against pagans or Arians, should not be erased. In the opposite direction, one should not blacken the one who had the courage to show in the Priscillian affair a moderation that was not that of other more sectarian saints, such as Augustine (354-430), who forged the notion of "just war".

    Decadent era? To say, as Régine Pernoud (1909-1998) in her book "Martin de Tours, rencontre" (Bayard Editions 1996), that by "the importance that the character of his holiness takes on," "he inaugurates a new civilization" can be seen as a reproach rather than a compliment. For a long time intellectuals have regretted the Roman and Gallic era, and, certainly, the population as well, for reasons that were primarily economic. Eugène Giraudet ("History of the city of Tours" 1873) : "The decadence of spirits is almost complete. [...]The civil schools founded by the Romans in Caesarodunum disappear  only the episcopal school remains. The study of jurisprudence, philosophy, poetry is neglected  and sacred literature occupies exclusively the intelligences. [...]The notion of right and wrong seems so unknown and bad faith in business is pushed so far that measures are taken to allow creditors to enslave their insolvent debtors."

    Martin, a nuanced historical record. Martin of Tours had an essential role in our history. The countryside could have stayed away from the Christianization of the cities, so much had the bagaudes initiated a secession. More than his violence (against his demons, not against men), his humility and his determination helped to convince the countryside. The gaps between the urban and bagaudés and the Christianized Barbarians were reduced. Gaul had become unlivable, Martin the first found a way for a new way of living together, to move towards social cohesion. His humble intransigence was appropriate for his time. He pivoted common interests. He succeeded in establishing a way to mingle through the sharing of innovative ideals. His successor bishops, of whom Perpet and Gregory are the symbols, continued in this way on another level. Coming from the Gallic and Roman aristocracy and knowing how to associate with the Frankish aristocracy, they completed the transformation of an economic and military imperialism into another cultural and religious imperialism, which carried in it an original poison: Martin had in him the germ of a religious intolerance which, relayed by his continuators, was more and more oppressive with the passing of the centuries... It is as if the civil war that was threatening at that time had been postponed to the time of the Albigensian crusade and the wars of religion... And of the Inquisition and the murderous colonization, excesses that Martin would have refused but that his distant continuators did not know how to contain.

    Jacques Fontaine, an enlightened critic of the hagiography of Sulpice Severus, has presented what can be called a professional assessment of the saint, estimating as early as 1969 that Martin carries within him "a militant Christianity lived by a military layman" (which distinguishes him in particular from Sulpice Severus in whom he sees "a formidable fabric of integralism") and concluding the 1997 colloquium with an article titled "St. Martin and Us". Excerpts  "Monk as much as bishop, he chose to express himself in the sober style of the Desert Fathers. [...]This orant, who loved to address God in solitude, also remains for us the model of a spirituality of encounter. [...]Martin, like God himself, did not judge people by their looks, whether they were beggars or emperors, uncultivated peasants or wealthy literate landowners. [...]Martin is not, therefore, a legendary figure, sprung from the timeless universe of folk tales and folklore  nor is he the overly seductive fiction of an enthusiastic hagiographer and a refined writer. [...]Martin was not an enlightened, deranged brainiac. He was certainly a nonconformist, an original, with what the word awakens, at once, of sympathy and concern, in those whom such a character attracts and surprises. [...]The singularity of Martin results from a constant deepening of his vocation, which made him pass smoothly from the militia to the militancy, from the military profession to the profession of faith, then to the monastic profession, finally to the apostolic mission of the evangelizing bishop."

    Historians and Colloquia. Jacques Fontaine (1922-2015, link), Charles Lelong (1917-2003), Luce Pietri at the 2016 colloquium, collections SAT from the 1997 colloquium (224 and 310 pages)

    Late twentieth-century historians have made it possible to dissociate historical facts from legendary inventions. In his 1980 dissertation (page 39), Luce Pietri thus speaks of the breakthrough caused by Jacques Fontaine (1922-2015) in his three 1967-1969 works studying the Vita Martini of Sulpice Severus (+ critique by Jean-Rémy Palanque, and critique by Pierre Courcelle, in 1970) : "By freeing the biographer's writings from the gangue of partisan readings and interpretations, by passing them through the sieve of a " reasoned and tempered criticism " by finally illuminating them in the light of a very sure knowledge of the milieu in which they were elaborated, the last commentator of the Vita Martini has arrived at a solidly supported conclusion which gives assurance to the historian's approach. [...]The method of investigation, elaborated from a completely renewed problematic, can, in a more general way, guide the historical investigation". Indeed, in this impetus, research continued, crystallized by two works of synthesis by Charles Lelong (1917-2003) in 1990 (cover) and 1997 (after his 1986 books on the basilica and 1989 on Marmoutier), by a seminar-colloquium in 1997 and by another colloquium in 2016. The city of Tours, Touraine (department of Indre et Loire), the Loire region (Centre Val de Loire) and the community of historians have paid, with these two colloquia (in which Luce Pietri participated, and Jacques Fontaine for the first), a contemporary tribute supported to Martin. In 1997, it was on the occasion of the 1600th anniversary of Martin's death. Four books on Martin were then published, commented by a article by Michel Carrias (+ link with two other books). Let us also note the constant in-depth work of the Société Archéologique de Touraine (SAT). These substantial historical advances, however, remain too confidential, Martin's image has remained "vitrailized"... Arte's 2016 documentary (see here-before) and the 2015-2019 books, despite their qualities, have failed to really reconsider Martin's image in the eyes of the general public.

    2015-2019: a culmination and a tentative step toward a new Martin. The commemoration of the 1700th anniversary of Martin's birth has revived Martin's bibliography with four books thick with 230 to 550 pages published in 4 years : the 2015, 2016, 32018, 2019 books presented below. All have a substantial written and illustrated part. The first three benefit from a magnificent iconography, on beautiful paper, the second and fourth contain thorough analyses. All of them are consistent with each other, relying on the works of the end of the XXth century. None of them, however, emphasizes, as it is done here, the dark side of Martin, his intolerance and his destruction of the Gallic heritage. Would this be taboo? It is nevertheless touched upon in the last page of the conclusion of the 2019 book by Robert Beck who seems to call for a certain rehabilitation of Babut. Historians are not completely free of the primitive hagiography attached to Martin. With Robert Beck, let us hope for "a new debate, this time outside of ideological considerations."

    1) Semur 2015 ("Saint Martin of Tours, European Pioneer of Solidarity", François-Christian Semur, Editions Hugues de Chivré, 232 pages + press kit). 2) Catalog 2016 ("Martin of Tours, the Radiance of the City," Collective, MBAT, Exhibition Catalog of the same title, 288 pages + press kit). 3) Maupoix 2018 ("Saint Martin de Tours, 17 centuries of stories and images", Michel Maupoix, editions "Rencontre avec le patrimoine religieux", 352 pages). 4) Collective 2019 ("Un nouveau Martin, Essor et renouveaux de la figure de saint Martin IVème - XXIème siècle", Collective with introduction by Bruno Judic, Presses Universitaires François Rabelais, 552 pages, including the interventions of the 2016 colloquium, here in 40 videos + link to other videos). On each cover of these works, horse and red cape (on the reverse or obverse) are the marks of a certain conformity... + the four original works used for these four covers : 1 (stained glass window of the collegiate church Saint Martin de Candes) 2 (anonymous and Master Henri, "Livre d'images de madame Marie, Cambrai or Tournai, c. 1285, BnF) 3 (Master of Boucicaut early 15th century [Bibliothèque municipale de Châteauroux]) 4 (Blasco de Granen between 1400 and 1459, Museum of Art of Catalonia in Barcelona) + summaries of these four books, the two previous ones (1997 colloquium), three others by Charles Lelong, and six recent ones on Martin.
    Three other books. In addition to these four books, there are a few others from the early 21st century, with rich iconography. Verrière 2018 : "The stained glass, reflection of St. Martin ?" by Jacques Verrière, targeted on the art of stained glass, photos by Jean-Paul Paireault, editions Hugues de Chivré 2018, 170 pages. + cover and presentation. Geneste 2018 : on a theme both broader, the art of stained glass, and more specific, the Fournier workshop in Tours, was published in 2018, by "Rencontre avec le patrimoine religieux", the book "Fournier & associés" by Olivier Geneste, 190 pages, drawings BmT. + cover + presentation. Lorincz 2001 is a French-Hungarian book by Zoltan Lorincz published in 2001 by C.L.D. in Tours and B.K.L. in Szombathely, titled "Saint Martin in the Art in Europe", 112 pages. + full version with watermark on each page in or here, 56 MB) + cover. As for the book "Le culte de Saint en Martin en Forez" (2009, 208 pages), it shows the impact of Martin on a region that is nonetheless distant from Touraine (link)...
    Municipal Publications and NR. In April 1982, the municipal bulletin "Tours Informations" published a dossier (25 Mb) of about ten dense pages, with articles by Pierre Leveel, Charles Lelong, Jacques Sadoux, Luce Pietri, Chantal Leroy, Henri Galinié. Under its new name "Tours & moi", a hors-série was devoted in 2016 to the city's patron saint. Fasc. NR 2012 and 2011 : in 2012, La Nouvelle République published a fascicule "Martin de Tours, un saint européen" of 50 A5 pages under the direction of Bruno Judic (cover). A year earlier, in 2011, in the same collection "Patrimoines", under the direction of Jean-Luc Péchinot, was published "Tours, une histoire capitale" (cover with Plumereau Square). In December 2015 , "Le Magazine de la Touraine" (Mag. Touraine) published a special St. Martin's issue, cover, summary.
    In bulk, here are other books about Martin, from the 20th and 21st centuries, showing how many there are, first in French : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36. Then in foreign language (including translations) : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75.

    The site Perseus is a treasure trove of documents written by historians. Many have been reprinted here in pdf format. Regarding Martin, there are many more available on this page matching the search criteria "Martin" and "Tours".

    In a interview radio to the publication of the fourth book, Bruno Judic indicates that knowledge of the Martinian phenomenon is now based on a multidisciplinary research that will bring new advances. Thus, archaeology has made it possible to discover near Milan what could be the first church dedicated to Martin, built by Pinian and Melanie the younger, in resonance with the genealogy that shows (hereafter) that Melanie and Eustochius, bishop of Tours, were first cousins. Thus the cult of the Tourangeau Martin, globalized (in the Roman Empire) by Sulpice Severus, with a home near Milan, would have, in a return to its roots, been energized in Tours by the superb basilica of Perpet, nephew of Eustoche.


  16. Brice, Martin's contested successor, is replaced by Armence

    Remember: Martin died in Candes and his body was brought back to Tours by the Loire River for burial.
    Sculpted chapel in the church of Mura, near Barcelona, where the devil is repelled [flickr Algela Llop].

    Martin's body was buried in the parish cemetery of Tours on November 11, 397. It was only 40 years
    later that his tomb was placed in a basilica. [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996] + plank. + vitrail from Tours Cathedral (bay 8) showing the entombment + the same scene in a reproduction of a bas-relief from the ninth century church of St. Ambrose in Milan [Lecoy 1881].

    The glory of Martin. What happened to Martin after his death? He would have gone to paradise, accompanied by angels, with (right) his helmet, sword and half-cape. Painted vault of the choir of the church of Saint Martin in Montégut-Lauragais (Haute-Garonne), by Bernard Benezet, 1868 (link) [book "La légende de Saint Martin au XIXème siècle" 1997]. + On the same theme, a tableau by Pierre-Adrien-Pascal Lehoux, 1885 [Nantes Museum of Fine Arts, same book], a miniature from the Salisbury Breviary, ca. 1435, "The soul of St. Martin received by God in heaven" [BnF], a vitrail circa 1955 from the church of St. Martin d'Olivet in the Orleanais (link), a fresco, circa 1790, of the Church of St. Martin de Castelnau-d'Estrétefonds in Haute-Garonne, a tableau by Konrad Huber 1810, with cloak and goose [church in Gundelfingen, Germany, link], a tableau by Wolfgang Andreas Heindl circa 1720 [Niederaltaich Abbey also in Germany, link], then, taken from the book Lorincz 2001, four central European paintings with a complex composition, difficult to understand in detail, with in common the ascent to heaven and the presence of the beggar and his half-cape : 1 by Georg Desmarées 1744, Sweden [St. Martin's Church in Kaufbeuren] 2 by Georgius Lederer 1738 [St. Martin's Church, Lemerdingen] 3 by Stefan Dorfmaister 1777, Austria [St. Martin's Cathedral of Eisenstadt] 4 by Franz Anton Maulbertsch 1791, Hungary [Szombathely Cathedral]. Also in Polish book cover.
    Martin finds the beggar. When all the saints gather, the beggar and his bishop are next to each other chatting, in the lower right of this painting of indeterminate Hispanic origin.

    Brice designated by Martin. Pierre Audin ["Tours in Gallo-Roman times", 2002] :"In 397, Brice succeeded Martin. Born into a wealthy family from Tours, he had been a long-time disciple of Martin at Marmoutier, but had often opposed him "because of his conceited and difficult character." He was also accused of breeding horses and buying slaves, including beautiful girls. Martin said of him  "If Christ endured Judas, I can well endure Brice  ". Later, the latter amended, so that Martin, exhausted and sick, recommended to the clerics and people of Tours to choose him as his successor. Some time after his election, Brice was accused of heresy by Lazarus, future bishop of Arles [actually Lazarus, bishop of Aix from 408 to 411], and had to go to Turin, around 401, to justify himself before a council." This is the first case we'll talk about again. A page on the site "Historivegauche" recounts the life of the one who, appointed bishop at the age of twenty or so, "despite a reputation that is, to say the least, sulphurous and an episcopacy constantly subject to various difficulties, surprisingly, leaves the memory of a saint".

    Brice really designated by Martin? Should we believe everything that Sulpice Severus tells ? In his book "Saint Martin, Apostle of the Gauls" (Fayard 2008), Olivier Guillot has doubts. He points out that Brice is elected only three weeks after Martin's death, as if there had been a power grab. "There was a certain exasperation felt against the type of bishop that Martin had been, and, as a counterpoint, since Brice had been in Tours his notorious opponent, a favor shown at all costs towards him", which explains both the election and the clerical support Brice subsequently received. Moreover, Brice was elected at a very young age, about twenty years old, and this is also surprising...

    Brice the anti-Martin. In her 1980 thesis, Luce Pietri [page 105ff], Luce Pietri thoroughly analyzes Brice's restless episcopate. The newly elected one acts quickly in contrast to his predecessor Martin : "Everything happens as if Bishop Brice had wanted to make the forgetfulness on his predecessor. New Judas : the comparison which the author of the Dialogues places in the mouth of Martin, more likely expresses the judgment which the disciples carry on the one among them who, since his elevation to the see of Tours, has betrayed the Master in their eyes. In this denial, should we see the delayed revenge of the cleric to whom his deviations in language and conduct had so often attracted the admonitions of his bishop? In fact, Brice's attitude seems to be dictated less by a hateful resentment against Martin than by the excessive confidence that his own person inspired. If Sulpice Severus has undoubtedly, in the chapter of the Dialogues where he puts him in scene, somewhat blackened Brictius, he lets however glimpse, under the grimacing mask of demon possessed which he dresses him, the authentic face of a personality less perverse than satisfied of its own mediocrity : that of a man persuaded that he is just and walks in the ways of the Lord because he was brought up in the Church and that he followed the canonical rules of an ecclesiastical cursus of which the episcopate was in his eyes the normal crowning achievement. The comparison that Brice makes between Martin and himself to his own advantage is very significant in this respect: Brice is unable to understand the greatness and superiority of the saint who took him in and raised him, because they are outside the usual norms; by reproaching Martin for his antecedents as a soldier and his "extravagances" as a bishop, the furious priest was in fact reproaching his master for not being in conformity, by his past and his present conduct, with the very conventional image that he himself had of a dignitary of the Church concerned with his respectability An unblemished good conscience, the conviction that with his election, order, disturbed by Martin's follies, was finally restored in the Church of Tours, this is what forbade Brice to collect and continue the Martinian tradition, alienated from him a part of his clergy and doomed his torn Church to fall back under his reign into an obscure mediocrity."

       Lidoire, Martin and Brice, the first three bishops of Tours. On the left Lidoire, in the center (above the inscription "Non recuso laborem") Martin dying pointing to his successor Brice, on the right an overall view of the "altar and tabernacle known as the main altar" in marble, dated 1901, given by Lucien Agenet, parish priest. The themes presented and the materials used lead one to question the concordance between this work and Laloux's basilica being finished in 1901. + portrait of Gatian the pre-bishop appointed by Gregory of Tours. + postcard from the early 20th century [Saint Martin's Church in Auzouer en Touraine, link heritage inventory region Centre, photo Th. Cantalupo]

    Early in his episcopate in 397, there had been the first Brice affair. "It was after his enthronement, shortly thereafter it seems, that the first signs of a rupture which cut the new bishop off from a good part of his clergy appeared. Of these difficulties testify first of all the legal proceedings of which Brice was the object in the months or the years which followed his consecration. [...]What were the nature and motives of the charges brought against the new bishop of Tours? Although the letters of Zosimus are hardly explicit on this point either, the terms used suggest, however, that the life, that is to say the morals, of the Tourangeau were being questioned. Sulpice Severus and Gregory of Tours, although they do not mention, either of them, the prosecution of Brice at this time, indirectly confirm this hypothesis. The author of the Dialogues echoes in 403-404 the rumors which would have circulated in Tours during Martin's lifetime about the priest Brice: " People accused him of having bought not only boys of the barbarian race, but even pretty girls". [...]It is certainly difficult, after so many centuries have passed, to reopen the first trial of Brice, when especially the main documents of the case are missing. One will however readily conclude, as to the charge invoked, that Brice was innocent, guilty at most of some imprudence in his youth : the councils, which ultimately absolved him, should not indeed have passed sentence without having carried out a serious investigation. To accuse of immorality the one whom one wanted to lose was besides a usual procedure of the clerical polemic." Absent by his hierarchy, Brice thus preserves his seat of bishop of Tours...

    The baby through whom the scandal comes: the mother is a nun, is the father the bishop ? On the left, Brice in his time as a disciple of Martin [Jeanne de Montbaston, captioner circa 1330, BnF]. At center left, Brice is ordained a bishop [Bourges Cathedral 1214, Verry 2018]. In the center right, Brice attempts to answer the public accusation [Jean le Tavernier, "Legenda aurea," 14th century, Flanders, link]. At right, an oil on canvas by Jean-Daniel Heimlich, 1773, shows Brice facing suspicion of paternity [St. Medard's Church in Boersch in Alsace, Wikipedia]. + photo with frame [Wikipedia].

    ...until the second Brice affair and the arrival of Armence. "In the 33rd year of his reign[in 430], if we stick to the chronology established by Gregory of Tours, a resounding scandal broke out in which the bishop was involved. The affair, which the historian is the only one to relate, is in many respects complicated and strange : the fault of a nun of Tours, who had failed in her vows of chastity, was revealed to all when this one gave birth to a child; at once the people of Tours unanimously accused Brice of being the father. This one, threatened to be stoned by his flock, tried to justify himself. But neither the testimony that the child miraculously pronounced in favor of the bishop, immediately suspected of magic, nor the ordeal to which the latter victoriously submitted in front of Martin's tomb succeeded in convincing the faithful of his innocence. Deposed by the people, Brice went into exile in Rome, while the Tourangeaux elected in his place a certain Justinianus. The latter did not enjoy his office for long : the voters - fickle - summoned him to go and join Brice "to sort out his business with him" and he died during his journey, in Verceil. A new election then brought Armentius to the episcopal see. However Brice, having expiated in tears and prayers the faults formerly committed against Martin, finally received from the pope, during his seventh year of exile, the authorization to return to Tours  his arrival at Montlouis, six miles from the city, coincided very opportunely with the death of Armentius; Brice then recovered his see without the slightest difficulty and kept it for seven years, until his death which occurred during the 47th year following his consecration."

    Brice, Martin's sultry successor, gets better with age [illustrations anonymous, except for right Eliane Mendiburu (link), at Veigné, in Touraine ; statue in Schöppingen, Germany (link)]. + fresco of the Church of Saint Bear in Loches (link + page dedicated) + vitrail circa 1600 from the Norwich Cathedral in England, from Rouen [flickr jmc4]. + Bishop Brice in a tableau from the church of St. Brice in Saint Brice sous Forêt in the Ile de France [Semur 2015].

    The anger of the Tourangeaux against Brice. Luce Pietri continues : "From Gregory's account, one cannot obviously retain as authentic either the marvelous episodes which are supposed to manifest divine intervention : nor the too happy coincidences, like the one that makes Armentius die on the return of Brice; nor the apparently insurmountable trials from which the bishop comes out miraculously justified : the burning coals that do not burn the innocent and especially the confrontation with the child who testifies in his favor, the newborn taking the floor to bring out the truth. [...] Stripped of all this legendary dressing, appear, in their nakedness, some facts that can be held as authentic : first of all the deposition of the bishop outside of any conciliar sentence, by the sole effect of the popular will. Replaced in its historical context, the intervention of the people of Tours takes all its likelihood: Brice was very probably victim of the disorders which shake in the first half of the Vth century all the West of Gaul and which shake all the political and social bases there. Not that it is necessary to try, in an explanation too mechanistic of the events, to put its fall in connection with a precise episode of the Bagaude; would one want it moreover that the uncertainty of the Gregorian chronology would prohibit it. More probably, Brice underwent the indirect effects of the new state of mind which had been established in these regions: the wind of revolt which blew against all the established authorities, even in the periods of relative calm, did not spare a prelate whose prestige had undoubtedly been strongly shaken in the spirit of the faithful at the beginning of his reign and who had not known how to gather around him, in the unit of a faith and a common hope, the Christian people of which he had the load. Also true is the interlude during which two bishops, successively elected against him, occupied the see of Tours, while its legitimate holder went into exile. Contemporary of the events, Sidonius Apollinaris indeed attests in one of his poems that between the death of Martin and the advent of Perpetuus, four prelates succeeded each other at the head of the Church of Tours."

    "It remains to elucidate the case at bottom : the accusation of misconduct, brought by the people on mere presumptions, was probably not better founded than the charge of the same nature of which Brice had been the object at the beginning of his episcopate before several conciliar assemblies. The second affair appears to be a resurgence of the first: the old suspicions, which the sentence of the councils had not completely lifted, were reawakened by a situation which created new reasons for dissension between the Christian community and its bishop. For Gregory's account lets us glimpse that to the accusation of adultery which served as a pretext for the deposition of Brice was mingled a reproach of quite another nature  that of not having granted to his blessed predecessor the honors which were due to him and of having thus deprived the city of Tours, at a time when it was in great need of it, of the help of a holy patronage."

    Brice and the dissolute morals among the clergy. Olivier Guillot, in his "Saint Martin apostle of the poor" (2008) also goes in this direction of neglecting Martin, without erasing the other accusations against Brice, even finding them a posteriori probably justified, by analyzing the council of 453 in Angers, presided over by Eustochius, Brice's successor : "Of the dozen canons promulgated by this council, there are three which deal with the case of clerics who have a guilty familiarity with women, one of which provides for the case where the deviated woman is a consecrated virgin, where the greatest severity is prescribed. We are tempted to see in this, in the aftermath of Brice's pontificate, a first attempt to regain control following the moral disorders of which this character, since his presbyterate, had set an example."

    La louange perpétuelle In her book "Martin de Tours, rencontre", 1996, Régine Pernoud believes that it was Brice who instituted the practice of "louange perpétuelle" or "laus perennis" (which will be found later in connection with the priory of Saint Cosme), which consists of clerics taking turns day and night to sing psalms, in order to "perpetuate the divine praise". "This usage will continue long through other monasteries." And Bishop Perpet, one suspects with such a name, "continued the use of perpetual praise, destined to last through the centuries, and which had a noticeable influence in the liturgy of the divine office. The Council of Vannes in 465 prescribed that the office be recited in the manner instituted at Tours near the tomb of St. Martin."

    Two of Martin's disciples: the Bavarian Florent of Anjou and the Milanese Maurille of Angers. Both came from afar attracted by the fame of the hermit of Marmoutier, both were welcomed with attention, both were ordained by their master, both went to Anjou to evangelize the population, one around Saint Florent le Vieil and Saint Florent le Jeune (who became Saint Hilaire Saint Florent), the other around Angers, both of whom performed numerous miracles and are the bearers of rather fanciful legends. The first is a former soldier in the Roman army having trouble living out his Christianity, with his brother Florian de Lorch killed for this reason. The second, from a wealthy Milanese aristocratic family, had met Martin in Milan when he was fighting against the Arians. Taken as a reader by Ambrose, bishop of his city, he joined Martin while still young and became the fourth bishop of Angers, from 423 to 453. Both testify to the power of attraction of Martin during his lifetime, even before the intervention of Sulpice Severus. The case of Maurille, a link between Ambrose and Martin, is revealing of the circulation of ideas and information at this time. This documentation also cites, in Anjou, Vérérin in Gennes (church), Maxenceul in Cunault (church), Doucelin in Allonnes (church), Macaire in pays des Mauges (church).

    Florent and Maurille. On the left, Martin receives Florent and ordains him [1524 tapestry, Saint Pierre de Saumur church] + miniature from the Sacramentary of the Basilica of Saint Martin where Martin ordains Florent [ca. 1180, BmT, link] + two stained glass windows by Florent in the church of St Hilaire - St Florent [Semur 2015] : 1 hunting a snake 2 as an evangelist + fresco of the Charlemagne Tower in Tours (P.-S.). On the right, the coronation of Maurille by Martin [Saint Martin's Church in Beaupréau, link with 3 other stained glass windows] + statue of Maurille in Brain sur Allonnes [Semur 2015] + four views of wall paintings from an exceptional discovery in 1980 in the Cathedral of St Maurice in Angers, forming a cycle of the life of Maurille [3rd quarter of the 13th century, link] : 1 2 3 4 + view overview (not publicly available). .

    Two other disciples of Martin: Hero bishop of Arles and Lazarus bishop of Aix en Provence. Undoubtedly both Tourangeaux, trained by Martin at the monastery of Marmoutier, both were appointed bishops in 407 by the emperor of Gaul Constantin III. The latter's reign ended tragically in 411 and both bishops were challenged by the Roman emperor Honorius. Driven out of Arles and Aix, of which they were the first known bishops, Hero and Lazarus left for Palestine where they stayed for about fifteen years before returning to Provence around 416 for Hero, of whom there is no trace, and to Marseilles for Lazarus, with the monk John Cassian who would found the abbey of Saint Victor of Marseilles. In a crypt of this abbey, there was a stele with the epitaph  "There lies Pope Lazarus of good memory who lived in the fear of God more or less 70 years and fell asleep in peace". He is said to have died on August 31, 441, and his relics are said to be shared between the Saint Lazarus Cathedral of Autun in Burgundy, the cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure in Marseille and in the crypt of the former abbey Sainte-Richarde d'Andlau in Alsace. There is too often confusion with the Lazarus of the Gospels

    Lazarus of Aix: sculpture on a capital in the chapel of Saint Lazarus, in the lower church of the abbey of Saint Victor in Marseille, his epitaph restored by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, in a seventeenth-century copy and stained glass window in the aisle of the church of St. Peter and St. Paul of Andlau (photos Yves Boto Campanella, link). Right Victrice of Rouen [fresco in the church of Saint Gervais in Rouen, Wikipedia] + vitrail of Victrice in the basilica of Our Lady of Bonsecours + case of a comic book about Rouen where Victrice appears rejoicing to welcome relics of Saints Gervais and Protais..

    The conflict between Lazarus and Brice, the two disciples of Martin. In a article from 1935 dealing with "dissensions of the churches of Gaul at the end of the fourth century, Jean-Rémy Palenque devotes a chapter (the 4th) to "The affair of Brice of Tours, dealt with by the Council of Turin in September 398". Pope Zosimus mentions this in a letter  "Lazarus has shown himself in many councils to be a diabolical accuser of our holy confrere Brice, bishop of Tours  he was dismissed as a slanderer by Proculus of Marseilles, who sat in the council of Turin. And the same Proculus made him a bishop many years later." And in another letter to the whole episcopate of the West : "Lazarus had been condemned a short time ago as a slanderer at the council of Turin by the judgment of the most respectable bishops, for having attacked by false accusations the morals of Brice, who was innocent  afterwards, Proculas, who had sat among the others in the council of his condemnation, had the mistake of giving him the episcopate". Thus, from the very beginning of his episcopate, Brice was the object of sustained attacks and already benefited from the papal support. And the author recalls that  "It was during St. Martin's own lifetime that Brice was publicly the object of accusations of immorality." It was also against the background of the Priscillian affair, since Brice is referred to as "Felician, accused of bad morals by the Martinians. The "good party", according to Sulpice-Severus, was bothered in a thousand ways ; but on his side he retaliated bitterly, and his intransigence made it difficult to restore communion in the Gallic episcopate.". Thus, while Martin was opposed to the killing of Priscillian, Brice was in the opposing camp of the Felicians (named after the bishop of Trier Felix supported by Ithace and the anti-Priscillian)...

    Victrice of Rouen, friend and disciple of Martin. Younger than Martin, a former military man, Victrice, born about 330, was a friend of Martin and Pauline of Nole. From about 390 until his death between 405 and 417, he was bishop of Rouen and erected the first cathedral there in 396. We know of a long letter of praise that Paulinus of Nole sent him (link). Excerpt : "Your meritorious holiness has given Rouen the full appearance of Jerusalem, as it has the reputation in the East, including with the presence of the apostles, who compare your city, which they did not know before, to their own home".

    Other followers of Martin in Gaul. Martin had other followers who became bishops, including. Corentin of Quimper, Mexme de Chinon (see below), Victeur du Mans (or Victor), Roman of Blaye, a little later Yrieix (Arède d'Atane), evangelizer of the Limousin, very inspired by Martin , who came several times to his tomb for refreshment. However, it seems exaggerated to say, as Albert Lecoy de la Marche did, that Marmoutier was "the great nursery of the episcopate". His role would remain no less important, even beyond Martin's death, as we have begun to see with his followers in Gaul. We will see in end of the next chapter that he also had disciples outside of Gaul.

    collegiate church of Saint Yrieix la Perche, on the left, was for a long time attached to the abbey of Marmoutier. One of its bays, right, unites Yrieix and Martin [workshop Louis-Victor Gesta of Toulouse, late 20th century, link].

  17. Armence and the Tourangeaux raise the first Saint Martin basilica

    Child's grave found in a necropolis located "in the immediate vicinity, between a few meters and a few dozen meters, of the place where Bishop Martin was buried in 397." [Ta&m 2007], before his body was moved to the Basilica of Armence. + the page 97 of the same book showing a workshop of mosaicists who worked for the Basilica of Perpet, with fragment of mosaic above right.

    The thesis of 1980 by Luce Pietri, published in 1983, revealed the importance of Bishop Armentius / Armentius
    + photo. This remarkable work is the reason for the creation of this page.
    + the document in its entirety of 890 pages (68 MB).

    The basilica called of Brice is that of Armentius. Luce Pietri, in her 1980 thesis, presented us with the expulsion by the Tourangeaux of their bishop Brice to replace him for about seven years by Armence / Armentius and launch the cult of Sanctus Martinus. Let us continue his account : "Significant is the mention made by Gregory, in the middle of the account of the tribulations undergone by Brice, of the erection, on the burial place of the blessed, of a first basilica. The presentation of the facts leaves no room for doubt that the homage thus paid to Martin came late, several decades after the saint's death, and that it played a decisive role in the reconciliation of the people of Tours with its legitimate pastor. On this point, there is almost general agreement. But from this point on, most historians have believed that the construction of the small basilica was the work of Brice, who returned from exile, during the last years of his episcopate. If this is so, it can only mean one thing: that the bishop, seized with a sincere repentance for his past conduct towards Martin, or, at least, enlightened by a sad experience on the errors of his government, regained at this price the affection and the confidence of his flock which, from then on satisfied, submitted again to his authority. Gregory's accounts, however, leave room for a significantly different interpretation of the course of events, although it leads to a similar conclusion. In his work on Saint Martin of Tours, E. -Ch. Babut had believed to be able to deduce from a comparative analysis of the texts that the modest building raised primitively on the tomb of the holy confessor was the work of one of the two bishops elected against Brice, the one who had succeeded in maintaining himself several years on the seat of the exile, Armentius. His hypothesis is based on a very accurate remark: the name of Brice is associated with the construction of the first basilica of Saint Martin only once, in a text that the author of the Historia Francorum wrote at the end of his life, the catalog De episcopis turonicis. On the other hand, neither the authors who, in the 5th century, evoke the history of the buildings successively raised on the tomb of Martin, Sidonius Apollinaris, Paulinus of Périgueux, nor especially Gregory himself in his oldest writings - the notices which he dedicates respectively to Brice and Perpetuus in book II of his History and the chapter of the de Virtutibus sancii Martini where he reports the translation of the body of Martin from the first to the second basilica - do not mention the intervention of Brice."

    To the left text by François Coulaud, drawing by Alain Duchêne + the two plates : 1 2 ["Tours Information May 1986], knowing , as already stated, that Tours was no longer called Caesarodunum On the right, the "basilica" of Armence as seen by the draftsman Lorenzo d'Esme [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]. Despite the clarity of Luce Pietri's demonstration, few attribute the first St. Martin's Basilica to Armentius /Armentius. Let us therefore welcome these proposals by Michel Maupoix, in his Maupoix 2018. Olivier Guillot, in his "Saint Martin apostle of the poor" (2008) also validates Luce Pietri's analysis, which he deems "remarkable." He goes further : "We confess that we are inclined to doubt that at the end of the seven years of his stay in Rome, the pope prescribes Brice to return to Tours after declaring his "innocence". Also : "It must be believed that bishops of the province agreed to ordain successively the two bishops elected to replace the one who had been driven out", it was the time when Martin's prestige was gaining strength in the episcopate. And Brice was only able to return because he, too, bowed to the memory of Martin.

    And, on a very revealing point of detail, Luce Pietri solidly and a priori definitively reinforces the Armentius  hypothesis: "To this argument a silentio advanced by Babut, one can add another clue provided by the biography of Brictius in the catalog De episcopis. Certainly, Gregory clearly states there that Brice built over Martin's body a small sanctuary in which he himself was later buried. But it has hardly been noticed that this notation was inserted in a strange way in the narrative: Gregory, who has just informed us that Brice, in his seventh year of exile, had received permission to return to his city, had the small basilica built for him even before his return to Touraine and the death of his competitor had allowed him to recover his see. Is it a simple clumsiness of a writer who proves on many occasions to be incapable of clearly leading a story, when the latter mixes many protagonists through multiple events? The explanation is a bit short, especially since the facts, in the final phase of this story, are relatively simple and that, in these kinds of notices, the historian usually casts his information in a scheme of which the Liber Pontificalis offers him the model: usually, he reserves the mention of the buildings built in the city as well as that of the rural churches founded by each of the bishops of Tours for a last paragraph which precedes the conclusion. In the biography of Brice, the author has followed this order and has only deviated from it on one point, concerning the erection of the basilica of Saint-Martin. This breach of a rule, which he has always imposed upon himself to follow, betrays, by introducing a certain incoherence into the narrative, the hesitations of the historian: torn between his respect for sources of information which led him to attribute the construction of the first basilica to Armentius and his desire to complete the edifying story of Brice's repentance with a final stroke, he has deliberately chosen, it seems, an ambiguous formulation" For Luce Pietri, it is therefore to Armentius that the first basilica should be attributed, even though it may have been Brice who inaugurated it.

    Between the Basilicas of Armence and Perpet, a temporary building ? On the CD associated with the Ta&m 2007 is a video (rendering Thierry Morin) presenting "an ordinary wooden building or a shelter for Martin's body ?", with the diagram at left and this other illustration. A text by Henri Galinié explains how "it becomes possible to propose that the building was used to momentarily expose the tomb or body of St. Martin so that the faithful could continue to come and venerate him since neither the basilica of Brice, dismantled, nor that of Perpet in the process of being completed, were accessible." On the right, a reconstruction that appeared in Cossu-Delaunay 2020 with a explanation titled "Interpreting an archaeological datum". It will be seen later that there would exist, fourteen centuries later, around 1870, a "provisional chapel" between the basilicas of Hervé and Laloux.

    While Armence is gummed up, Brice ends up canonized. "If one agrees with this hypothesis, it must be admitted that Brice, on his return from exile, gave to the people of Tourange, by having "his brother" piously buried in the new basilica, then by having his own burial prepared there, sufficient tokens of his Martinian devotion, so that the faithful, assured henceforth of the holy protection of the apostle, would agree to let him return to his seat and govern his Church in peace until the end of his existence. The trials endured by the prelate, his great age worthy of respect made forget the past resentments  Brice, twice involved in affairs of morality, ignominiously chased from his city by his own flock, finally died " in odor of sanctity "."

    17 years after her thesis, Luce Pietri returned to Armence and its basilica during a university colloquium in November 1997, with a study entitled "The beginnings of the cult of Martin in Tours" : just after his death, "while Martin seems forgotten in Tours, his memory is piously maintained in the Aquitanian domain of Primuliacum [article by René Aigrain and L. Ricaud on Sulpice's villa of Primuliac], where, since his conversion to asceticism in 394/395, Sulpice Severus retreats, joined by fervent Martinians who, for the most part, come from Tours". Then, while the inauguration of this chapel is usually dated 437 : "The last stage of the evolution that I have tried to trace brings us back to Tours. The long silence which enveloped the memory of Martin in his Church is for the first time broken some forty years after his death. At a date that can be placed between 430 and 435/436, a modest sacellum is built over his tomb, either by the second of the bishops elected by the Tourangeaux after they had ousted Brice, or by the latter, upon his return from exile." This second interim bishop is Armence who exercised from 430 to 436, the first, Justinian, having exercised only briefly and Brice being back only in 436, thus after the period 430 - 435/436.

    She concludes : "The testimony of Sidonius Apollinaris, who evokes with contempt this mediocre construction, is corroborated by that of Gregory of Tours who also mentions the cellula parva housing the tomb. It is a simple funerary chapel: most probably placed under the vocation of the apostle Peter, as E. Ewig has shown, it later received the burial of two other Touraine bishops, Brice himself, in 442, then Eustochius, in 458 or 459. The exiguity of the building prohibited the celebration of a cult bringing together the community in honor of a patron saint."

    A Reappraisal of the Basilica of Armence. In the Collective 2019, Gaëlle Herbert de la Portbarré-Viard doesn't really agree with this analysis considering that a "cellula" is a "mediocre construction." She relies on the writings of Gregory of Tours to note that he names the building at Armence (still attributed to Brice) both "basilique" and "cellula", giving the latter word the meaning of "small building. The wooden roof, "built in an elegant work," was beautiful and strong enough to be reused in the church of St. Peter St. Paul. There is no indication that the building was made entirely of wood. It probably wasn't, because a close analysis of a text by Sidonius Apollinare allows us to understand that the basilica of Perpet was built by "pushing back" the walls of the basilica of Armence, which would thus have endured in part. And it was solid enough to serve as a starting point for a monumental building.

    428-507: the time of the barbarian invasions in Touraine. Taking into account the dating of Armence's episcopate between 430 and 437 and that of Brice in two sequences, from 497 to 430 and from 437 to 442, the Wisigoths arrive in 428 under the first Brice sequence (repulsed, they will return around 469), the Alains in 438 under the second Brice sequence, the Bretons in 446 under Eustochius [Couillard - Tanter 1986 below].

    Sanctus Bricius in an undetermined location and in the present basilica

    Two stained glass windows in the Saint Laurent church in Montlouis sur Loire, signed Lux Fournier (1904), with the Loire River in the background. On the left "St Brice on his return from Rome stays in Montlouis and leaves Montlouis to return to Tours his episcopal city - Year 437". Right "St Perpet founds the church of Montlouis and deposits the relics of St Laurent - 464-494" (link). + detail of each of these two stained glass windows : 1 2 + in the same church a sculpture of the sharing of the mantle.

    Followers of Martin outside of Gaul. We saw in end of the previous chapter that Marmoutier played a role as a nursery for new evangelizers of rural Gaul in the early fifth century. In the late fifth century and later, other evangelizers from more distant pagan lands had Martin as their spiritual guide. Gaudentius of Novara, near Milan, is another marker of this region's connection to Tours. He has the peculiarity of floating on his mantle (fresco by Luca Rossetti 1738), as a link to Martin ? Ninian, who may have known Martin, founded the first church in Scotland, in Withorn around 397. It was called Candida Casa and sometimes also "Urbs sancti Martini". Half a century later, Patrick (c. 380 - 460), evangelizer of Ireland, probably passed through Marmoutier. Martin of Braga (515 ca. - 579), a native of Pannonia like Martin whose name he took after a pilgrimage to Tours, became archbishop of Braga, in the north of Portugal then Swedish kingdom, and developed there the cult of the one he venerated. Around 570, Berthe of Kent (539-612), daughter of the Merovingian king Caribert I who became queen of the kingdom of Kent founded the Church of Canterbury, the first in England, patronized by Martin. Around 740, Boniface of Mainz evangelized the Frisia (Netherlands), Thuringia, Hesse... One of his disciples founded in 744 the abbey of Fulda, so close to the one in Tours. And there were disciples of disciples, including a disciple of Boniface, Adalbert of Prague (956-997), patron saint of Bohemia, Poland, and Prussia, who had made a pilgrimage to Tours and stayed at Mainz.

    To the left, Patrick and the bush on a stained glass window in the church of St. Patrice (see box below) (links : 1 2, another link where it says he knew Maurille and Florent). On the right Martin and Patrick stand side by side at the feet of St. Gregory (of Tours ? or the Pope ?) [Clayton and Bell 1938, Cathedral of Truro, England, flickr Rex Harris]. + in the church of Saint Patrice, the stained-glass windows next door to Martin and Patrick [atelier Lobin]. + text by Bruno Judic, from the introduction to the Catalog 2016, showing other links between Ireland and Touraine (e.g. Columba of Terryglass passing through Marmoutier around 550, vitrail, link). Let's end with this page from an Irish site on Martin, featuring a vitrail by Harry Clarke (early 20th century, church in Castletownshend, Ireland).
    Saint Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, in Touraine. Born in island Brittany between 373 and 390, he died in 460. "His grandfather Potitus was a priest, his grandmother was from Touraine, in Gaul" [Wikipedia]. This appears pretty sure. Then, late in the eleventh century, it is said that this grandmother Concessa would be a relative, or even a sister, of Martin of Tours, which seems implausible (why would Sulpice Severus not have mentioned this sister ?). Still, it seems plausible that Patrick passed through Marmoutier and even, a little downstream on the Loire, in a place that took his name : Patricius then Saint Patrice. Patrick is said to have stopped there in the winter, laying his coat on a bush that has bloomed every Christmas since. + page of LM 2006-1 + see hereafter the Touraine historial.
    On a short 1947 American comic strip by George F. Foley, Patrick is shown as a relative of Martin's through his mother, and then as having met Martin as a nephew. Here are three plate excerpts (link) : 1 (left drawing) 2 (right drawing) 3.

    Side by side in Orton Church in Devon, England, Scottish Ninian and Martin. 1959 stained glass windows by Stanley Murray Scott (link). At center, Berthe of Kent, statue by Stephen Melton 2004 in a Canterbury garden. Center right, Martin of Braga, statue in Braga, Portugal. At right, statue of Boniface, Apostle of the Germans, in front of St. Martin's Cathedral in Mainz (link) + miniature of an eleventh-century sacramentary from the abbey of Fulda depicting Boniface baptizing a pagan and then dying a martyr.

    Two boxes by Albo Helm in BD Utrecht 2016 + the plank. It was under Martin's patronage that Willibrord (658-739) evangelized the Frise, recently acquired by the Merovingian Franks, from Trajectum / Utrecht. Martin is ubiquitous nt in Utrecht, as three other plates  show: 1 2 3.

    The Benedictine rule founded by a disciple of Martin. Benedict of Nursia (480-547) founded the monastery of Mount Cassin and the Order of the Benedictines, governed by the Benedictine Rule. He did so by relying on Martin's patronage, as explained in this short article illustrated by Bruno Judic in the Fasc. NR 2012. This article introduces another Italian disciple of Martin, Cassiodorus (485-580), founder of the monastery of Vivarium.

    William the Conqueror and Martin. The Martinian influence in Britain and Ireland was lasting, as the following episode told by Albert Lecoy de la Marche [Lecoy 1881] shows: "More famous still was the St. Martin de la Bataille Abbey, not far from Hastings. William the Conqueror, on approaching the Breton shores, had vowed to found a monastery if he won the victory. Immediately after the memorable day when his adversary perished, and on the very spot, he fulfilled his promise. A religious of Marmoutier, who accompanied him, advised him to place his establishment under the patronage of the illustrious father of Gallic monasticism; which he did with alacrity. Marmoutier also provided the new house with its first inhabitants and contributed by this, as by the many priories that fell to it in Great Britain, to making the name of its founder venerated in this land." The Battle of Hastings took place in 1066, William the Conqueror was a descendant of the Normans who plundered Marmoutier in the 9th century... He had the dormitory built there and his wife Mathilde of Flanders offered the refectory.

    St. Martin de la Bataille Abbey. At left, scene from the Battle of Hastings on the Bayeux tapestry. In the center, a Romanesque rendering (link). On the right, the current entrance to the abbey. + two other restitutions from the Gothic period : 1 2 + engraving [Lecoy 1881] + photo of the abbey and battlefield as seen from the air.

  18. The Huns in the Basilica of Armence and the miracles told by Perpet

    Hun mercenaries in Tours ! The following events apparently took place between 438 (end of the bagaudes of Tibatto) and 441 (nearby arrival of the Alains), during the last years of Brice's episcopate, after the death of Armence. Excerpts from pages 98 and 99 of Luce Pietri's 1980  thesis: "It is possible that during these two years [435-437]the city of Tours had to suffer from the plundering and violence committed in the countryside by Tibatto [cf. chapter Tibatto on the next page]. More certainly cruel to the inhabitants of the urbs turonica was the presence of the barbarian mercenaries whom the Roman authority delegated to their protection and who behaved like an occupying army in a conquered country. The memory of the misdeeds committed by the Hun horsemen of Litorius as they passed through was still very much alive when Bishop Perpetuus wrote his Charta de Martini miraculis. The work, in which the prelate had recorded some of the miracles performed by Martin from his tomb during the period preceding his episcopacy and during the early years of his episcopate, is unfortunately lost. But the substance of it has passed into the work of Paulin of Perigueux, whom the Tourangeau bishop had commissioned to dress up his relation in verse and who, from this testimony, composed the sixth book of his poem De vita sancti Martini episcopi. Two episodes are related, without any doubt, to the presence of Hun mercenaries in the city of Tours. The poet took care, moreover, to introduce these accounts, to place them in their historical context: "The sudden fear of a peril had thrown Gaul into a more serious peril : it had called the Huns to its aid, and these auxiliaries were at its expense. The means indeed to support without pain an ally who shows himself more cruel than the enemy, and who ignores, in his ferocity, the treaties agreed."

    "Leon the Great, Defying Attila", text France Richemond, drawing Stefano Carloni; Glénat-Cerf 2019 + cover + two boards : 1 2.

    Church vs. Huns, the Pope Leon I (390-461) vs. the King Attila (395-453) [19th century drawing]
    + The same scene on a vitrail" from the church of St Maurice de Bécon in Courbevoie in the Ile de France region [Nhuan Doduc site]. + the same scene in a fresco monumental in the Vatican Palace, designed by Raphael and made with his disciple Giulio Romano [Wikipedia].

    Two posthumous miracles of Martin. Continued : "The following two scenes are set in the suburbium of Tours, in the basilica of Saint Martin, that is, given the period in which these events must be situated, the modest sanctuary which preceded the great edifice erected by Perpetuus. They show us the Hun soldiers giving themselves over without restraint to their instincts of rapine and violence :
    • One of them, to satisfy his lust for booty, seizes the votive crown, no doubt a precious work of goldsmith's art that adorned the tomb of the saint  immediately struck blind, he gives himself up to repentance and returns the object of his theft.
    • Another does not hesitate to perpetrate a murder in the sanctuary and, immediately atoning for his crime, he pierces himself, in his fury, with his own sword.
    These two episodes alone were deemed worthy by Perpetuus to be transmitted to posterity, because their denouement offered in his eyes a salutary example of the punishments reserved by the immanent justice of God to those who violated the holy asylum of a place of worship. No doubt that other misdeeds, remaining unpunished, were committed in great numbers by the barbarian mercenaries.

    439: Hun mercenaries defeated by the Visigoths. 13 years before Attila's death, 42 years after Martin's, Huns mercenaries of Litorius would have sown terror in the basilica of Armence [drawing Mike Ratera, see below]. Terrified at their approach, the Visigoth king Theodoric I asked the bishop of Toulouse to negotiate peace. Overconfident, Litorius recklessly stormed Toulouse. Beaten, wounded, taken prisoner, this lieutenant of the Roman general Aetius, future victor of Attila (the mercenaries having become enemies), was executed. At right, stained glass window in the present basilica showing the soldier Hun struck blind (by Martin's hand) for the stolen crown in his hand [Lobin, Verry 2018].

    451: Attila and the bagaudes. A decade after their misdeeds in Tours as mercenaries of the Romans, the Huns commanded by Attila attempted to invade Gaul. To do this, Attila sought to ally himself with the Bagaudes, through the intermediary of a kind of ambassador, a Greek physician, named Eudox, who was familiar with the Bagaudes lands. But the rural people in revolt against Roman oppression feared the Huns even more. Moreover, the Christianization of the countryside begun by Martin began to bring them closer to the city dwellers. This was a failure, as shown in the comic book series "The Song of the Elves" published from 2008 to 2010 by Soleil Productions in three volumes, with script by Bruno Falba and drawing by Mike Ratera. It describes the preparation for the battle of the Catalaunic Fields and the battle itself (in 451), with the presence of elves, dragons, and monsters to magnify the fighting, over a solid historical backdrop. + two plates on the heated discussion between Attila and Eudoxus (volume1) : 1 2 + one plank on the death of Eudoxus, lynched by his own people (before the battle, volume 2) + plates of the battle (intro of volume 1) : 1 2
    >>>On the adjacent page is the chapter titled "449-451 The Huns and Attila's Betrayed Trust in Eudoxus and the Bagaudes".

    451, harangued by the young Genevieve, the Parisians do not give in to the Huns. Left anonymous image circa 1890, right engraving LTh&m 1855. After some Huns passed through Tours, Attila, the Huns and their allies sought to sack Paris in 451. A devout Christian, Genevieve Severus, mobilized the Parisians against them. The account of this is presented on this page. It ends  "Paris grateful placed the coffin of St. Genevieve beside that of Clovis, in the basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, and chose for patroness in heaven her who twice had guarded it from the wrath of the barbarians". In her city, Genevieve, who came several times to Tours, dedicated a baptistery to St. Martin.

    Genevieve at Tours. At left, a miracle of Genevieve in the Tours basilica [Lobin workshop circa 1900], told by Bruno Judic in the Collective 2019 : "Arriving in Tours, Genevieve goes to the basilica of St. Martin, which we must assume is brand new. There she cured the possessed and especially, in a spectacular way, one of the cantors, taken by a crisis of madness, in the middle of the celebration of the vigils of Saint Martin. Genevieve was therefore in Tours either for the 4th of July or for the 11th of November. Genevieve, who died in 500 at the age of 80, made several pilgrimages to Tours. On the right, "The work of the Huns (the Germans)"shows that fifteen centuries after their passage, the Huns retain a terrible reputation... + seven pages Nhuan DoDuc of stained glass windows on Genevieve : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (knowing that it is likely that the aristocratic Genevieve never herded sheep...). + vitrail from the church of Sainte Monégonde in Orphin in the Yvelines [Charles Lorin, of Chartres, link].

    451, guided by their bishop Aignan, the Orleanians repelled the Huns, shortly after the relief of the Parisians and shortly before the Battle of the Catalaunic Fields. Aignan had been proclaimed bishop at Tours, in front of the tomb of St. Martin, as shown, left, in a stained glass window in the church of St. Aignan in Chartres, made by the Lorin 1893 workshop. + stained-glass window next to it featuring Aignan's triumphal entry into Orleans [flickr photos Paco Barranco]. Center and right, drawing by Julien Fournier 1883, preparatory to a stained glass window, showing Aignan encouraging the besieged soldiers to repel the Huns, in a scene that would later be repeated with the Tourangeaux and Vikings [Geneste 2018]. + The same scene on a fresco by the Italian Giuseppe Cesari (1568-1640).

    The genius of Perpet. The two miracles performed by Martin's corpse through his tomb, concerning Hun mercenaries, are characteristic examples. There were many others, which Perpet told to his friend, the writer Paulin de Périgueux, who wrote about them in a book amplifying the work of Sulpice Severus: everyone had to understand that coming close to the tomb, filled with Christian faith, could trigger a posthumous miracle of Martin. He who had done so much was still performing them... And Perpet was going to build a magnificent basilica to make these miracles even more spectacular. Charles Lelong in his book of 2000 writes to, about the book of Paulin : "work of propaganda which aimed to teach that, in the eyes of all, Martin did not cease to live and that the city of Tours enjoys in perpetuity of Martin its bishop." Olivier Guillot, in his 2008 book  "If there was for a long time "a posthumous reign of Saint Martin", it is in very large part thanks to all that Bishop Perpetua did and instituted"

    The virtus of Martin We will see that Gregory of Tours will amplify the Perpet method: Martin is certainly dead, but not completely, he remains alive through his virtue, his virtus which can still work miracles through relics, whether it be a piece of his corpse, a cloth of a cope, dust from the tomb, a holy ampulla... And moreover, above all, you have to believe in it very hard...

    Paulin of Perigueux, spokesman for Perpet. Presentation in preface by E.-F. Corpet, 1848, of the one Perpet called upon to write Martin 's praises: "It appears from his own testimony that he was a Gaul, and it is supposed that he was the son of a famous rhetorician of Périgueux, named Paulin, whose memory Sidoine Apollinaire recalls with praise. One could believe that he had, in his youth, sacrificed to the profane muses; but, like many other writers of this time, he converted in a more advanced age. It was then, around 463, that he undertook to put into verse the Life of Saint Martin and the Dialogues of Sulpice Severus. While he was busy with this work, Perpetuus, bishop of Tours, who encouraged him in his efforts, and had perhaps advised him on this pious undertaking, sent him, to complete his poem, a report, signed by his hand, of the miracles which had been accomplished before his eyes by the all-powerful influence of the name and relics of Saint Martin. In the meantime, Paulin's grandson and a young girl he was about to marry became dangerously ill. The precious booklet signed by Perpetuus was applied to their stomachs and they were saved. This miraculous cure revived the verve of the grandfather, who finished his great poem, and told separately in a piece of eighty verses the prodigy operated in favor of his grandson. A few years later, around 470, Paulin wrote another inscription of twenty-five verses, at the request of Perpetuus, which this bishop had engraved on the walls of a magnificent church dedicated to Saint Martin. As Paulinus was already complaining of the infirmities of old age at the time of his grandson's recovery, it is supposed that he died some time after composing this inscription, that is, about 476 or 478."

    Paulin of Perigueux. His writings are on the remacle site.

    Illustrated history books often included on this page. In the 19th century, 10 years apart, two magnificent books were published on Touraine, dealing with its history with many unpublished engraved illustrations, some in color. Their grandiloquent frontispieces are repeated in the two illustrations at left. The first work, coded LTa&m 1845 is titled "La Touraine ancienne et moderne" published in 1845 by L. Mercier, written by Stanislas Bellanger (1814-1859), 614 pages, with numerous engravings, often by Lacoste Aîné. The format is standard. + covers. + double page presentation + some other pages.
    The Mame masterpiece. It is likely that the second work was conceived as an outgrowth of the first. Noted LTh&m 1855, it is titled "La Touraine, histoire et monuments", text Jean-Jacques Bourassé, numerous engravings by Karl Girardet and others, published in 1855 by the Mame publishing house, printed by the Mame printing house. The illustrations are even more numerous (the book is considered the most illustrated of its time), the format is giant (29 cm x 41 cm), 610 pages. "This work is a monument; the woodcuts are remarkable. Unfortunately its format wrongly keeps it away from some libraries. One must realize that nowadays such a debauchery of woodcut illustrations is an expensive luxury because of the cost of labor. The richest publisher would ruin himself in such enterprises" [Carteret,Le Trésor du bibliophile]. This "chef-d'oeuvre de typographie", considered "the most richly illustrated book of its time", the pride of Alfred Mame, was awarded the Grand Medal of Honor by the international jury at the 1855 Exposition Universelle in Paris. + covers + double page + advertisement for a 1985 reissue.
    Alfred Mame, a major industrialist. The Mame printing company had up to 1500 workers in Tours (in 1866), it was the largest employer in the city. + view of the printing plant in Tours in 1880 [Stéphane Pannemaker circa 1900, "Tours citée meurtrie" 1991] and postcard + short biography of Alfred Mame in Mag. Touraine HS November 2000. He controlled the entire chain of making a book (from the paper mill in southern Touraine to La Haye Descartes, photo) and was a social patron in the paternalistic manner of the nineteenth century, which is how he created the "cité Mame", a working-class housing estate that is still in place (but with needlessly felled trees, cf. neighboring page) : illustrations [Bernard Chevalier's "Histoire de Tours" 1985]. + article La NR 2016 + municipal brochure about the Mame.
    Recall that we previously featured a beautiful illustrated book, the Lecoy 1881. Let us add Oury - Pons 1977, "La Touraine au fil des siècles - La ville de Tours", 240 pages, published by C.L.D., by Guy-Marie Oury, illustrations by Georges Pons (cover) and Leveel 1994 "La Touraine disparue, also published by C.L.D., by Pierre Leveel (cover with the castle of Véretz and excerpts, 62 of 320 pages).
    Tours and Touraine in comics. In a modest way, in the 20th century, two years apart, two comic strips about Tours and Touraine were published (illustrations on the right). Their authors, very little known, applied themselves to a chronological history through the centuries that has never been treated in comics neither before nor after, although there is so much material. Both have a standard format. The first album, noted Guignolet 1984 is titled "Si Tours m'était conté", published in 1984 by C.L.D. editions of Chambray lès Tours (48 pages). The second album, coded Couillard - Tanter 1986 is titled "History of Touraine, from the origins to the Renaissance", text by Georges Couillard (article La NR), drawing by Joël Tanter, self-produced 1986, reissued by La NR (78 pages). Let us point out three other albums, dealing indirectly with the history of the city and the province, in a non-chronological form. "Enquête en Touraine", text by Pierre-Yves Delarue, drawing by the young cartoonist Etienne Le Roux, which has since proved its worth, was published by Week-End Doux in 1991 + cover. The other two were published by "La comédie illustrée" in 2002 and 2005, titled "Chacun son Tours" (cover, introduction) and "Tours in Tours" (by neighborhood) (cover). These are collective works featuring six and seven eight-page stories (three plates at the end of this page). + two pages of an article about comics in Tours in 2010 : 1 2.
    History of Tours in pictures. In November 2020, as this page was ending, a beautiful book "Tours, portraits d'une ville" (originally titled "Tours, portraits d'une cité disparue", drawings by Mathieu Cossu, texts by Cédric Delaunay, 180 pages, here coded Cossu-Delaunay 2020 (cover, article La NR).

    Historians of Tours and Touraine. Each of them is cited multiple times on this page : Jean-Jacques Bourassé (1813-1872) (LTh&m 1855), Eugène Giraudet (1827-1887) ("History of the City of Tours", 1873), Pierre Leveel (1914-2017) (Leveel 1994), Bernard Chevalier (1923-2019) ("Tours ville royale 1356-1520", CLD 1983, "Histoire de Tours", Privat 1985), Pierre Audin (1944-) ("History of Touraine", Gestes Editions 2016...).

    Sanctus Perpetuus in the present-day basilica

  19. From the family of Paule and Eustochie, Eustoche and Perpet, aristocratic bishops

    Jerome of Stridon (347-420) is one of the four Latin church fathers. A translator of the Bible into Latin, under the name of vulgate, he set up intellectual criteria common to the bishops of Gaul and elsewhere. Paula / Paula (347-404), a very wealthy aristocrat born in Rome, a patrician, ardently converted to Christianity, subjugated by Jerome, thus bathed in this effervescence, followed him to settle in Bethlehem around 385, with her daughter Eustochia / Eustochium (368-419). They founded the community of nuns of the Order of St. Jerome. Eustochius, grandson of Paule and nephew of Eustochia, became bishop of Tours in 442. Through his family and education, he and his nephew and successor Perpet had a consistent Christian culture, an extensive network of knowledge, and also solid financial means. + article by Marie Turcan "Saint Jerome and Women" (1968).

    The three illustrations below show Paule and her daughter Eustochia studying the Bible, listening to Jerome. All three are contemporaries of Martin at a time when, in a globalized society (around the Mediterranean), a Christian cultural effervescence based on epistolary exchanges in Latin was bubbling. In particular, we know that Jerome exchanged letters with Pauline of Nole and Sulpice Severus. Bruno Judic in the Collective 2019, believes that  : "It would undoubtedly be possible to speak of a "vanguard" of the Church at the turn of the fourth and fifth centuries, which breathed into Christianity the means of overcoming the obvious compromises with an empire that had become Christian and therefore a Church that had become an "administrative and routine" body.

    Paule and Eustochia disciples of Jerome of Stridon. At left, mosaic made from a page of the first bible of Charles the Bald, made by the scriptorium of Saint Martin's Abbey in Tours in 846. This miniature is a plate in three boxes : 1) Jerome leaves Rome then pays his teacher 2) he teaches Paule, Eustochia and others 3) he distributes his bible. In the center, mosaic from the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. On the right painting by Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664). + works by Jerome on the remacle website + remarks on a letter from Jerome to Eustochia, aged 16 to 18, which caused a scandal in Rome for inviting her to remain a virgin + painting on wood by Sano di Pietro, 1444, showing Jerome appearing in a dream to Sulpice Severus. + two stained glass windows by Paule [Nhuan DoDuc site] : 1 [Sens Cathedral] 2 [St. Nicholas Cathedral of Dalat in Vietnam]. + page Nhuan DoDuc of stained glass windows on Jerome, often depicted with a Bible + study on the life of Paula.

    Paule and her descendants bishops until Gregory of Tours. On the left is Abbess Eustochia, daughter of Paule and aunt of Eustochius, the fifth bishop of Tours [painting by Juan de Valdés Leal, Bowes Museum]. Then Martin and Jerome side by side on the eastern portal of Chartres Cathedral [Lorincz 2001] (on the tympanum, Martin shares his cloak, zoom back, link) + gross shot of Martin's face [flickr joan yakkey]. The page English Wikipedia refers to Eustoche as Perpet's uncle, while the French page refers to him (in 2020) as his grandfather. Chronologically, the first hypothesis is more likely. Are present on the family trees : Paule (1), her daughter Eustochie (2), her grandson Eustoche (3), and her great grandson Perpet (4). The latter had an uncle Ommace / Ommatius (5) whose grandson of the same name Ommatius / Ommat / Ommace became the 12th bishop of Tours from 522 to 526 (6) and whose granddaughter Ruricia married the bishop Rusticus of Lyon (7) (a close friend of Sidonius Apollinaris), who had two sons who became bishops of Lyon, Leontius (8) and Sacerdoce (9) and a nephew (also nephew of Ommace 5) Rurice II bishop of Limoges (10) having as grandparents Avitus Western Roman emperor and Saint Rurice bishop of Limoges. The descent of Rusticus of Lyon (7) shows that he had three grandsons bishops, Aurelian in Arles, Nizier in Lyon, Maurillon in Cahors, a great-grandson (rather one of his close cousins) Eufronius / Euphronius bishop of Tours and a great-great-grandson who is the famous historian Gregory, bishop of Tours.

    Melanie the younger frees her slaves and shakes up Roman society. Two other Roman aristocratic women would hold important roles in this Roman Christian vanguard : Melanie the elder (341-410) and her granddaughter Melanie the younger (383-439). Like Jerome, Paula and Eustochia, they settled in Jerusalem, while remaining in epistolary contact with Rome. Both established a monastery in Jerusalem. Melanie the elder met Jerome, but there was a disagreement. Before leaving for Palestine, Melania the younger, who was wealthy, sold, with her husband Pinian, all her possessions in Italy and Gaul and freed 8,000 slaves, leaving them a small sum of money. "In doing so, the two heirs of one of the greatest Roman fortunes were dangerously shaking the pillars on which society rested: the power of the senate, of which Melania's and her husband's property was a sign, and the slaves, whose emancipation was permitted but limited. They could not thus divest themselves of their immense patrimony without the help of the Christian empress Serena, who interceded on their behalf against the senators" (link). + article by Emmanuel Amand de Mendieta, in 1963, on "The Life of Saint Melanie" by Denys Gorce. The family trees below show the existence of family ties between Eustoche (and thus Paule, Eustochie, Perpet), Paulin de Nole and Melanie the younger. Geographically, this translates into links between Tours, Rome and Jerusalem, the three cities that were to become the main places of pilgrimage in Christendom in the sixth century. See also, hereafter, the financing of the basilica of Perpet.

    Melanie the Elder and Melanie the Younger. On the left is the Ancient one [Priscilla's catacomb] then the Young one. The first name Melanie has as derivatives Melaine, Melina, Melinda, Melusine, Molly... + two stained glass windows (Nhuan DoDuc site) presenting Melanie the Young : 1 [St. Peter's Church in Charenton le Pont in Ile de France] 2 [St Nicolas St Martin church of Valmont in Normandy].

    The family proximity of Eustoche (and his nephew Perpet) to Melanie the Younger and Paulin de Nole. The tree on the left shows that Eustoche and Melanie the younger are first cousins. The tree on the right shows that Melanie the elder, grandmother of Melanie the younger, was first cousin to Paulin de Nole. The "SOSA" indications match up with people in the ancestry of many genealogists and beyond... since Eustoche's parents are ancestors of Charlemagne (tree). Eustoche and Melanie the Younger are not cousins though, but they do run in two very close families. + tree showing that Paule (Eustoche's great-grandmother) has a daughter-in-law Laeta whose first cousin, Valerus, is the father of Melanie the Younger and the son of Melanie the Older  this is another connection of the families of Eustoche and Paulin de Nole. This family closeness between Pauline and the Melanies is all the stronger since they all three settled in Palestine, in Bethlehem and in Jerusalem. Finally, let us note that in a study from 1956 dealing with the "conversion of a family of the Roman aristocracy of the Late Empire", André Chastagnol offers a schematic genealogy estimating that Paule (#22) and Melanie la Jeune (#16) are cousins. While the cousinship appears very plausible, it probably looks a little different because a generation or two separates Paule (b. 347) and Melanie (b. 383), yet this stemma puts them on the same level. By way of Paule, then, there is a second cousinhood, more distant than the first, between Eustoche and Melanie.

    Eustochus came from a family venerating Martin. The two family trees above show that Paulinus of Nole and Eustochius share a common cousin Melanie the Younger who, like his paternal grandmother Melanie the Elder, is a Christian saint. In the introduction to the Collective 2019, Bruno Judic reports on recent archaeological discoveries that tend to prove that the site Palazzo Pignano, a village east of Milan where there is a church of St. Martin, had in the fifth century a church already dedicated to St. Martin. Now the name Pignano leads one to believe that it was originally the estate of Pinian, the husband of Melania the younger, "domain in which Pinian is said to have had a church built at the beginning of the fifth century under the title of St. Martin, as a model of ascetic and monastic life, the life that ultimately Pinian and Melania wanted to live at the very source of their faith, that is, in Jerusalem." We know, moreover, that they had left Rome just before the sack of the city by Alaric in August 410 to take refuge in northern Italy", thus in their Milanese domain. The arrival of Eustochius, who was close to Pauline of Nole, in Tours was not a coincidence, but rather a sign of his desire to live in the very place where the saint venerated by this family had lived in order to honor him. It seems likely that he knew the church of Saint Martin de Pinien and Melanie la Jeune, at a time when Martin, thanks to Sulpice Severus and the fault of Brice, was more celebrated in Milan, Rome or Jerusalem than in Tours.

    Notes on these genealogical data: these are the ones I constructed in my personal genealogy, long before the present study. They are commonly accepted by the genealogists of the geneanet site, knowing that, in this distant era, surnames are very variable (often invented), and also first names to a lesser extent (Frenchized or not...). These links cannot be considered as completely certain.

    Eustoche and the cult of Gervais and Protais. Probably born in Rome, perhaps in Auvergne, child of Roman citizens, Eustoche, grandson of the famous Paule, is thus an aristocrat benefiting from a raised education and a powerful relational network. Pierre Audin ["Tours in Gallo-Roman times" 2002] :"Eustochus, elected in 444, was from a rich senatorial family of Auvergne [rather a rich Roman family settled in Auvergne]. Appreciated by all for his culture and piety, he affirmed at every opportunity the preponderance of the Church over civil power, and as such did not hesitate to oppose the decrees of the emperor Valentinian III. Constantly fighting against the slackening of ecclesiastical discipline, Eustochius had a second church built in the castrum, in contact with the enclosure, probably between the cathedral and the archbishopric. This new building was dedicated to the saints Gervais and Protais, whose relics Martin had, 50 years earlier, brought back from Italy at the suggestion of St. Ambrose. This church disappeared during the 17th century when the new archbishopric was built. Died in 461, Eustochius was, like his predecessor Brice, buried in the Basilica of Saint Martin".

    On the left, the martyrdom of Gervais and Protais, one by flagellation, the other by decapitation [design for stained glass window in Noyant de Touraine, by Julien Fournier and Amand Clément 1875, Geneste 2016]. At right, "The Invention of the Relics of Saint Gervais and Saint Protais" by Philippe de Champaigne circa 1659 [Musée Beaux-Arts Lyon, Wikipedia] + tableau by Eustache le Sueur 1655 [Lyon Museum of Fine Arts]. + four pages from Nhuan DoDuc's website featuring stained glass windows by Gervais and Protais : 1 2 3 4.
    The Church of Eustoche. The relics of Gervais and Protais, entrusted by Ambrose to Martin, were deposited in a new church that Eustoche built next to the cathedral, shown in red on this plan of the religious buildings of Tours at the end of the 5th century [Pierre Audin 2002] :

    Relics 2/8 : passage of relics. From Ambrose of Milan to his colleague Martin of Tours and from Martin of Tours to his disciple Victeur du Mans, bones of Gervais and Protais cross Gaul. Case from the comic book "Le Mans Tome 1," collective of authors, ed. Petit à Petit 2018 (link) + the plank. + carpeting and vitrail of the martyrdom in Le Mans Cathedral (link). We saw herefore that the bishop of Rouen Victrice had received relics of Gervais and Protais from Martin, and we saw herefore that Perpet had entrusted the parish of Montlouis with relics of Saint Laurent.
    Olivet's piece of fabric. The church of Saint Martin d'Olivet, in Orléans, a commune first named Saint Martin d'Olivet, "hosts a relic of the cloak of Saint Martin. It comes from the treasure of the cathedral of Auxerre from where it was sent in 1567 by the canon Pierre Beaulieu, a native of Olivet. Discovered and immediately hidden during the Revolution by a worker in charge of removing the religious emblems from the church, it was later returned to the parish of Olivet, which celebrated the event on July 8, 1860 (feast of the translation of the relics). In 1890, Maurice Prou hypothesized that the relic came from a suit worn by St. Martin and kept by the faithful. The shrine was sealed in 1961 in the chapel of St Joseph. It is now kept in a cabinet and given to the veneration of the faithful every November 11." (link) + table of the sharing of the mantle in the church of Olivet.
    Beginning in Relics 1/8, continues in 3/8, 4/8, 5/8, 6/8, 7/8, 8/8.

    Eustochius defends Romanity. Luce Pietri [page 104 of her thesis] : "At a time when there was still a fragile hope for the Roman cause in Gaul, Eustochius was already concerned about the possible failures of the civic spirit in Gallo-Roman communities and tried to prevent them : in 453, at the council of Angers which he presided over, he had a resolution adopted striking down with excommunication any cleric who would surrender his city to the enemy. With the spiritual weapons that were at its disposal, the Church of Tours joined the fight led by the last defenders of Romanity in Gaul." Before the end of the Roman Empire in 476, Touraine fell into the hands of the Visigoths around 471, in the middle of the episcopate of Perpet, when his basilica ends.

    Councils: an episcopal democracy? The Gallic bishops met for the first time in Arles in 314. Whether provincial, regional or national, councils continued throughout the troubled times of the barbarian invasions. The non-exhaustive list is on this page of Wikipedia. In addition to Church business, these meetings dealt in the background with the political problems of the day, brought geographical coherence to episcopal action, and strengthened the network of bishops throughout Gaul. On the left the council / synod of Seleucia (the one of 359 or 410 or 486 ?) [Semur en Brionnais, collegiate church of Saint Hilaire]. On the right, the Council of Marseille in 533 [église saint Trophime in Arles, painting on wood, late 16th century (link)].

    The first bishops of Tours painted on the oratory of the Tours Museum of Fine Arts. In the tower of the Gallic enclosure adjoining the Fine Arts Museum, formerly the Archbishop's Palace, next to the cathedral [reminder: photo], an oratory was set up around 1872, with vaults painted by Louis de Bodin de Galembert, depicting eight of the early bishops of Tours, here Perpet on the left and Eustoche on the right, before restoration + the decoration depicting Martin and Gatien (in color) before restoration ["The legend of Saint Martin in the 19th century" 1997] and after restoration [Book Catalogue 2016]. On the right church foundations in the diocese of Tours from the fourth to the sixth century ["France before France", Belin 2010], showing how much Martin's successors continued the evangelization of Touraine.

    From Jerome to Perpet, the veneration of a holy place. Jerome of Stridon initiated the development of pilgrimages. In his work "Life of Hilarion", he "strongly defends the notion of a geographical location of the sacred : Hilarion, passing through Egypt, enthusiastically contemplates the living place of Antony, who was his master in asceticism and who has just died  Hilarion's tomb itself becomes a holy place" [Catherine Saliou, "from Pompey to Muhammad", Belin 2020, page 494]. Eustoche and Perpet, descendants of Paule, the first of Jerome's disciples, applied this great principle of their master to make Tours a holy place. One may even wonder about the predestined first name of Perpet: was not the future builder of the prestigious basilica destined from birth to perpetuate the memory of Martin, according to Jerome's precept? Moreover, Jerome was the first to emphasize the post-mortem miracles, those of Hilarion, through the relics and the anointing with oil. Perpet was inspired by this... + documentation on the monastery of Saint Hilarion (with its vault) which can be paralleled with the monastery of Marmoutier (with its cave of rest) [René Elter and Ayman Hassoune 2004].

    The Councils of Eustochius and Perpet. Martin had probably participated in several councils, his successors organized some. Luce Pietri [page 143 of her thesis] : "It was as bishops of the Metropolitan Church that Eustochius and Perpetuus successively convened three councils and presided over the elaboration of important religious legislation. In 453, Eustochius took advantage of his meeting with six other prelates, called like himself to Angers by the consecration of bishop Thalasius, to hold a conciliar meeting in that city. [...]In November 461, the celebration of the recepito Martini brought together in Tours, with Perpetuus, 9 bishops who then took part in a new conciliar session. Although three of the prelates present, Leo of Bourges, Germain of Rouen and Amandinus of Châlons were strangers to the province, it is quite difficult to deny the character of a somewhat enlarged provincial council to this meeting: it is probable that the metropolitans of Lyonnaise Second and Aquitaine First as well as the suffragan bishop of Belgium Second had come to attend the feast celebrated in honor of Martin and that they were invited by courtesy to sit in an assembly to which their presence conferred more solemnity. [...]the council assembled a few years later [circa 465] at Vannes, on the occasion of the consecration of the bishop of the latter city, Paternus, was to vividly manifest the unanimity of the episcopal body of the province."

    Perpet, sixth bishop of Tours, in his basilica : in front of the tomb of Martin (19th century) and two other representations

    The spectacular moral prestige of Martin on the Gallic episcopate. Olivier Guillot, in his book "Saint Martin apostle of the poor" (2008) closely analyzes the rules ("canons") governing the conduct of bishops in the 5th and 6th centuries, in particular the one that "the bishop should have cheap furniture and table, as well as poor man's food, and seek by faith and the merits of his life the authority ("auctoritas") of his dignity." He sees this as a consequence of the councils, especially that of Agde in 506, the presence of a "axis of influence between Tours and Arles" and the prestige of Cesarius, bishop of Arles from 502 to 542, "the most famous bishop of his time." He concludes  "About a century after the pontificate of St. Martin, the latter's design to be a bishop with a poor man's dress and life in rule, which at the time had seriously shocked many bishops, has become, in experience, by a reversal of this opinion of the bishops, a behavior now considered worthy of being followed by every bishop. There is here a spectacular proof of the moral prestige with which Saint Martin was credited in the hearts of the bishops of the Gauls at the end of the fifth century". Olivier Guillot then expresses doubts about the general application of this Martinian way of leading the life of a bishop, which seems to him to be ephemeral and certainly abandoned in the 7th century. What remains is the prestige of the saint that the Franks will revive in their own way...

    The False Will of Perpet. On Bishop Perpet / Perpetuus, in addition to the page Wikipedia, one may consult the biography in four pages of the site orthodoxievco, knowing that a few elements are questionable, especially the testament of Perpet. This one, republished several times, is certainly a forgery written by a priest named Jérôme Vignier, born in Blois in 1606, died in Paris in 1661. This is shown by Charles Lelong in a article in the SAT in 1995. The reference on Perpet's life, with a solid historical foundation, seems to be the previously cited this-before thesis by Luce Pietri in 1980 (pages 131-169).

    Evolution of the city of Tours 2/7: With the new Perpet Basilica, Tours becomes a capital of pilgrim tourism Tours thus became a place of pilgrimage, in a way the sanctuary of Lourdes of the Gauls or the sanctuary of Aesculapius at Epidaurus in ancient Greece transposed into the Western Roman Empire... If the hoped-for miracle did not materialize in Tours, pilgrims could also go to Marmoutier or Candes, or try, in the vicinity, another lesser-known saint or one more specialized in the ailments to be cured... Of course, according to Perpet's successors, there were other posthumous miracles of Martin. According to Charles Lelong ["Vie et culte de Saint Martin", 1990], if Nicolas Gervaise is to be believed in 1699, "it was only during the second quarter of the sixteenth century that miracles became rarer and that this place so venerable to all the world lost some of its brilliance and splendor". And he believes ["Life and Posthumous Glory," 1996] that "it was in the sixth and early seventh centuries that the cult reached its peak, unless we are misled by the abundance of information."

      The creation of a new city, Martinopolis : around 400, under Bishop Brice, and around 600, shortly after Bishop Gregory. The role played by Martin allowed Tours to become a prestigious place of pilgrimage. The city then had two poles. On each of the two plans above, on the right (east) the ancient city, "civitas", protected and limited by its ramparts (leaning south on the old amphitheater), retaining its administrative role and housing the bishopric. To the left (west), still on the banks of the Loire, the "suburbium" or "vicus" around Martin's tomb would grow in importance until it became a new city, independent of the old "City". + article by Jacques Seigne "The fortification of the city in the fourth century" and article by Henri Galinié "La formation du secteur martinien" which gradually took the name Martinopolis, the city of Martin, Martinopole [Ta&m 2007]. Starting in evolution 1/7, sequels in 3/7, 4/7, 5/7, 6/7 and 7/7.


  20. The funding, decorations, and poems of Perpet's basilica

    Eustochus, bishop of Tours for 17 years, probably prepared his nephew Perpet / Perpetuus / Perpetue / Perpète for his succession, so that he was quickly operational to give a vigorous boost to the cult of Martin. His episcopate lasted 31 years, he was able to act in the long term. The construction of a large basilica was in itself insufficient, it was necessary a higher illumination: to let believe that Martin would be still operational! With his advent in 459, Perpet knew that the basilica of Armence was not any more with the height of its ambitions, it was necessary another one which marks the spirits. He undertook the construction of it, which lasted about ten years... It was to serve as a place of propaganda for the regenerated cult of Martin.

    A hypothesis about the financing of the Perpet Basilica. We have seen above that Eustochus, Perpet's uncle, was a first cousin of Melania the younger, married to Pinian, whose family probably raised one of the earliest churches named St. Martin, near Milan. Now the page Wikipedia of Melania reports that :"After having a dream (of crossing a high wall before passing through the narrow gate into the Kingdom of Heaven), Melania and her husband sell their property. These immense properties extend from Brittany to Spain. The sale was made for the benefit of numerous monasteries and churches and Melanie also freed her numerous slaves (three gold coins were given to each of them). This was done despite the disagreements of many of their family members and politicians so as not to compromise the state's economy." There is reason to believe that part of this colossal fortune went into the financing of the Perpet Basilica.

    The Fabulous Basilica of Perpet. According to Charles de Grandmaison (1824-1903), this new basilica, completed in 471, was "not only the most famous and the most frequented, but also the most magnificent in ancient Gaul." It was a source of amazement and admiration to all who saw it. An attraction for pilgrims! No matter if it was hardly a reflection of Martin's humility... It was then, along with Rome, the main place of Christian pilgrimage in the West. Gregory of Tours speaks of it "with a kind of enthusiasm." According to him, the basilica was 160 feet long (47 m according to the Roman foot), 60 wide (18 m) and 45 high (13 m), these measurements having been corrected to 53, 20 and 45 m, notably by Charles Lelong ["Vie et culte de Saint Martin" 2000]; it was pierced by 52 windows and 8 doors, and there were 120 columns in the interior. It had two parts, the nave and the sanctuary, the latter having 32 windows. It was decorated with decorative and figurative mosaics. One may consult the article by Noël Duval 1999 titled "Descriptions of architecture and decoration in Gregory of Tours and the Gallic authors: the case of Saint-Martin of Tours" (his conclusion).

    At left, Perpet directing construction, from a calendar by Jacques Callot (1592-1635) (+ image of Martin in this famous calendar). In the center Perpet proceeds with the placement, known as "translation," of the tomb in his basilica [Lobin stained glass window, Laloux basilica]. On the right, the infirm at the tomb of Saint Martin [stained glass window from the collegiate church of Candes, F. Gaudin 1900]. + plank by Joshua Peeters in BD Utrecht 2016 showing this translation which was dated July 4, 471.

    Perpet's consecration of the basilica and prayer within its walls. On the left stained glass window from the Lobin 1870 workshop, located in a oculus of the church of Saint Martin le Beau in Touraine (description in "The heritage of the communes of Indre et Loire" 2001) + stained glass in the same church with Martin in the sky watching the transfer of the tomb. At right, stained glass window by Lux Fournier 1904 (+ photo), in the neighboring Saint Laurent church in Montlouis sur Loire, with the caption "An inhabitant of Montlouis comes to pray at the tomb of St. Martin where he miraculously recovers the use of speech" [three illustrations from Verriere 2018, with the tomb highlighted].

    At left, the Perpet Basilica according to the "longitudinal cut" (here) in the restitution of Jules Quicherat (1814-1882). At right, the tomb in Perpet's basilica, restitution [Lecoy 1881] + complements on this restitution (knowing that some remains attributed to the Perpet basilica in the excavations were later found to be attached to the Hervé basilica). + plan and cut longitudinally in this restitution (resumed hereafter). + article by Charles de Grandmaison on Quicherat's restitution, 1870 (and see hereafter) + article by Francis Salet, 1973.

    Perpet, Martin's impresario. Bruno Judic in the article from 2009 titled "The origins of the cult of St. Martin of Tours in the 5th and 6th centuries", presents other assets of the Basilica of Perpet  "It is during the episcopate of Perpetuus at Tours between 460 and 490 or so that the tomb really becomes the object of development for the cult. Perpetuus then appears as an "impresario" of the cult of Martin to use an expression of Peter Brown. It is true that there had been a small building above Martin since the time of Brice, but it was far too small to allow for the devotion of the faithful. Perpetuus therefore undertook the construction of a large basilica whose apse housed the remains of Martin. He gave a great pomp to this new construction, antique columns, mosaics, and inscriptions decorated the nave and the apse. For the inscriptions he turned especially to two writers, Sidoine Apollinaire and Paulin of Périgueux. Paulin of Perigueux, not to be confused with Paulin of Nole, is not well known. He appears to be the author of a Life of Martin in verse, taking the material from the Life composed by Sulpice but adding to it accounts of more recent miracles communicated to Paulin by Perpetuus. It is thus a true poet who also composed some of the inscriptions of the basilica. This Paulinus must have belonged to the same literate, aristocratic and religious network as Sidonius Apollinaris who is on the other hand well known."

    The same Bruno Judic, in the Collective 2019 article titled "The Radiance of the Martinian Figure" : "The Basilica of Turin was the source of many Martinian images. Indeed, it must have possessed a veritable cycle of images. At the time of Perpet, the decoration must have corresponded in part to the versus basilicae handed down to us by the Martinellus. They allow us to assume the presence of evangelical scenes, the destitute widow, Jesus walking on the waters, the Cenacle, the column of the Flagellation or the throne of the apostle James  to this program were to match scenes of Martinian miracles without being able to be more precise." + article by Alain Erlande-Brandenburg, 1965, "The Pre-Romanesque Setting of Martin of Tours."

    On the left, we can guess a bird
    and bunches of grapes.

    Remains of the decoration of the Basilica of Perpet published in Ta&m 2007, where Christian Sapin writes : "The whole was decorated as it should be for the basilicas of this period with hangings, paintings (which according to the inscriptions interpreted as legends of them were to represent miracles of Christ and others of Martin), to which must be added the colorful richness of the mosaics and marbles). The materials found during the excavations may come from this decoration but also from successive renovations that the monument had to undergo [...]It is likely that these decorations had to include also mosaics and stucco." + article by Christian Sapin "The Early Basilica from the Fifth to the Tenth Century", Ta&m 2007.
    Other scenery. ["La basilique de Saint-Martin de Tours", Charles Lelong, 1986]. Opposite, Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996 (there is hesitation between 471 and 472, 471 is more frequently used). In addition to piety, the basilica benefited from the attraction towards beautiful images, then rare in this period.
    This drawing by Lorenzo d'Esme [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996] would need to be corrected based on what has come down to us :

    Remember that we have seen here before probable reproductions of the central decoration of the Basilica of Perpet : these three variants of the sharing of the mantle, miniatures from Fulda Abbey, dated to about 975, five centuries after the original work. This can be considered a comic strip with 3 non-separated boxes : 1) Martin and the poor man, the sharing of the coat, 2) God and his angels who in the background observe and manipulate, 3) Martin who becomes aware in his sleep that it is to God that he has offered half his cloak. This scene in three successive and linked times, telling a story, was modern and powerful, fascinating...

    Martin Ligerian. In a 2012 study titled "At the Sources of Martinian Monasticism, the Lives of Martin in Prose and Verse," Sylvie Labarre analyzes Paulin of Perigueux's rewriting in verse  "His rewriting is also more Tourangeau, particularly because he seconds Perpetuus in his policy of enshrining Tours as Martin's city. He reinterprets the Tours landscape in terms of a Martinian topography. Luce Pietri noted it well : " A christianized city gave place to a Christian city : the urban space, since the episcopate of Perpetuus, is organized according to the geography which draws the loca sancta martiniens [...]. In his eyes (those of Paulin of Périgueux) the course of the Loire, whose beauty he celebrates when crossing Tours, is providentially adapted, in its course, to the topography of the holy places of the city which it borders and separates. Paulin expresses this predestination of the Loire to welcome the saint  : " The nourishing river attests the work of the marvelous virtue of Martin : it touches the contiguous walls of the city and licks the rocks of the flood. Located in the middle, it separates the cell (cellam) and the tomb (sepulcrum). One thinks of the symbolic value of the Tiber in Virgil and in Roman ideology." In the church of Saint Martin de la Place in Anjou, a tableau goes so far as to relocate the sharing of the mantle to the banks of the Loire (link) !

    1) Merowig at the foot of Martin's tomb [Jean-Paul Laurens 1882, "The Legend of Saint Martin in the 19th Century" 1997]. Merovia / Merovig was the grandfather of Clovis, giving his name to the Merovingians. It is very unlikely that he was concerned with Martin and Tours, it would be more Merove, great grandson of Clovis. + another drawing, in the Basilica of Perpet, by the same author in the same series "Tales of the Merovingian Times". 2) In the center, fragment of the tomb of Bishop Euphronus of Autun (see box below). 3) On the right, prayer before the tomb, 15th century tapestry [musée des tissus à Lyon].
    The marble of the tomb of which only the piece shown in the central illustration above survives. In 475, four years after the construction of Perpet's basilica, Bishop Euphronus of Autun offered the marble that covered Martin's tomb in Tours. A "fragment of an inscription from the tomb of Saint Martin" is preserved behind one of the grates of the actual tomb, which was shown to Pope John Paul II (+ two INA  photos: 1 2). It is accompanied by this explanatory  "This limestone fragment is probably one of the few testimonies of the tomb of Saint Martin. Discovered in association with other remains of the 5th century, it comes from the basilica of Bishop Perpet. We read, engraved in a frame, the letters "FESTUS OM" (+ photo [" Saint martin of Tours, XVIth centenary" 1996]). This inscription would enter into the composition of two words of the epigram engraved on one side of the tomb of the saint offered by Euphronus bishop of Autun." + the epigram in full. Euphronus of Autun had also written this epitaph : "Confessor by his merits, martyr by his sufferings, apostle by his deeds, Martin reigns glorious in heaven, and here in his tomb; may he remember, and blotting out the sins of our poor life, he hides our faults under his merits." + restoration of the tomb-altar [Lecoy 1881].

    Entrelacs. Ornamental vision of the present basilica + another pattern of stained glass + five photos : 1 2 3 4 5.

    Pre-Romanesque art, from Perpet's basilica to Laloux's. Plant and animal decoration by Pierre Fritel (ceiling above and altar mosaic below left) in the present Laloux Basilica. Very present in early Christian art, the peacock is the symbol of immortality and resurrection.

    Right : in order to preserve the unity of the whole despite the fragmentation of the building site, Pierre Boille makes sure to reproduce the forms and decorative vocabulary used by Laloux. Here the budding and diamond points taken from the balustrade of the staircase leading to the choir (photo). [illustrations and text from "Victor Laloux, son oeuvre tourangelle," Hugo Massire, Sutton 2016, arch. départ. 37, Boille collection]. On the Perpet basilica and the research of Jules Quicherat and Casimir Chevalier, see this chapter hereafter.

    After connecting the decorations of the Perpet basilica to those of the Laloux basilica, let us return to the words of Bruno Judic  "At the request of Perpetuus, Sidonius also composed inscriptions for the Martinian basilica. We also owe Perpetuus the establishment of the liturgical calendar of the Church of Tours with the fixing of the two great feasts of Saint Martin: the celebration of his burial, on November 11, and the celebration of his episcopal consecration on July 4. From then on, the cult grows in size."

  21. The Visigoths and seven other bishops from the Gallic aristocracy

    Martin supports Maure in his fight against the Arian Visigoths, such is the meaning of these two stained glass windows by Lux Fournier [church of Saint Branchs in Touraine, Garden 2018]. Twin sister of Brigitte de Touraine (or Britte or Britta), both supposedly descended from a Scottish king, Maure is said to have gone to Tours with her nine children to be baptized by Martin. But a Visigoth chief did not accept this conversion and sent an army of 50 men after each of the children to make them recant. One of them, Epain, was caught and martyred. Hence the names of the communes of Sainte Maure (and its famous goat cheese !) and Saint Epain. Since the Visigoths did not arrive in Touraine until 80 years after Martin's death, the story is later, Moor and his children would have met Martin only during a pilgrimage to his tomb... Or it is about the first incursion of Visigoths around 428, Moor and Epain being then aged for example 70 years and 50 years... + the greenhouse of St Branchs in its entirety (read from bottom to top) + vitrail depicting Epain in the church of St. Epain in St. Epain [Nhuan DoDuc site] + cover of a booklet about Epain..

    The Visigoths from the Pyrenees to the Loire, as far as Chinon then Tours. At the beginning of the 3rd century, Caesarodunum had faced a first wave of assault by the Barbarians, ramparts had been built to entrench themselves. They were useful during the following waves. After a first incursion in 428, the Visigoths settled in Touraine around 469, under the episcopate of Perpet. They would remain there for a long time, occupying the south of the Loire, the civitas Turonorum included in 471, until the arrival of Clovis' French in 507. Here are the most notable milestones :
    • 464-486: The Visigoths move up the Loire and occupy Chinon around 469, Tours around 471
    • 486: Clovis defeats Syagrius at the battle of Soissons, the Gaulish state of Soissons remnant of the Roman Empire dead in 476 disappears.
    • 486-507: the Franks occupy the north of the Loire, the Visigoths exile the bishops of Tours Volusian and Verus.
    • 507: battle of Vouillé, the Franks invade the south of the Loire to the Pyrenees.

    The Gallic state of Soissons under Egidius from 461 to 464, on the left, then, on the right, under Syagrius from 464 to 486.
    In the center a Visigoth warrior [drawing Pierre Joubert, "Au temps des royaumes barbares" 1984].

    461, Chinon: the Visigoths, the Gauls of Soissons and Mexme, disciple of Martin. As the stained glass window on the left shows, St. Mexme repelled (temporarily...) both the Visigoth soldiers of Frederick (son of Theodoric) and the Gaulish soldiers of General Egidius (then leading the kingdom of Soissons extending into Touraine, the last survival of the Gallo-Roman era) who were fighting over the city of Chinon. This was in 461 and Mexme (Maxime), who was ordained a priest by Martin (thus before 397) and who was visited several times in Chinon, was probably dead, even if Gregory of Tours makes him die in 463. Trained at Marmoutier, Mexme was an exemplary disciple of Martin, both monk and evangelist like his master. The city of Chinon / Caino (whose church of Saint Martin was created in 425 by Brice, Mexme being its first abbot) was occupied by the Visigoths around 469 [Luce Pietri page 129] until their defeat in 507 at Vouillé. On the right is the collégiale Saint Mexme in Chinon. Links : 1 2. 3 4 + un episode of the Visigoth / Egidius / Mexme clash by Couillard - Tanter 1986 + sculpture of Mexme and Martin side by side [Saint Louans Chapel in Chinon, link]. + drawing of Bourgerie from the early 19th century [Level 1994]. + engraving LTh&m 1855.

    From the Bagaudes to the Visigoths. Jean-Jacques Bourassé in LTh&m 1855 : "The Gallic spirit of independence and pride had not entirely perished under Roman domination. Truly never tamed, the Gauls inhabitants of the countryside wanted to shake off the yoke. The Bagaudes rose up; but they succumbed under the walls of Lutetia. They had shown themselves on the banks of the Loire, and had seized the city of Amboise. The "Armorican league", a century later, called the Gauls to arms; the cry for freedom resounded again. The weak and perfidious Honorius, desperate to reduce the insurgents, delivered their country to the Visigoths. The movement was compressed ; but the southern Touraine remained with the capacity of Elric." In short, for the Romans, better was a kingdom Visigoth considered as allied, than revolted Gauls. On the Breton insurgents, see on the next page the kingdom of Blois.

    In the sixth century, bishops who know how to impose their authority on kings. Charles Lelong in "L'histoire religieuse de la Touraine" (CLD 1962) points out that "The Church of Tours owes its vitality first of all to the exceptional quality of its bishops. Few cities can boast such a lineage of great pastors, almost all of whom came from one of the most illustrious episcopal families of Gaul, the Gregorii, "rich" senators from Arvera. Trained according to the rules of the canonical curriculum, builders of churches, careful legislators, animators of councils, they also assume all the tasks that reject Merovingians : assistance to the poor and prisoners, the redemption of slaves, teaching, justice on occasion ... ". Does the author go too far in saying that "almost all" the bishops were Arvernes ? If he cites only four, there were at least 8 of the 17 successors of Martin (the 2nd bishop) : Eustochius /Eustochius (the 4th), his nephew Perpet / Perpetuus (5th), Volusian / Volusianus (6th, perhaps Perpet's nephew), Verus (8th), Ommat / Ommace / Ommatius (12th), Injuriosus (15th), Euphronius / Euphronius (18th, great-grandnephew of Ommatius), Gregory of Tours (19th, son of a first cousin of Euphronius, died in 594).

    To these eight names, Luce Pietri, in her 1980 thesis [page 135], adds Francilla / Francillon / Francilio, 14th bishop and shows that there were even more : "Gregory of Tours was later to state " that with the exception of five bishops, all those who had exercised the episcopate in Tours had had ties with the family of his parents " with in note : "Gregoire's statement, which responds to personal attacks - he is reproached for being an Auvergnat, a stranger to Tours - cannot be taken at face value : among the prelates who, since the death of Martin, preceded him on the seat of Tours (16 or 18 according to whether one counts or not Justinianus and Armentius, the two prelates elected against Brice), six only receive from the historian the title of senator (Eustochius, Perpetuus, Volusianus, Ommatius, Francilio, Eufronius). The number of bishops who, not belonging to the senatorial order (and sometimes resulting, according to the historian, from rather humble circles), could hardly be related to his family is thus well higher than five. It is quite certain, however, that Gregory would not have made such a statement, if kinship ties had not actually united him to all or almost all the Tourange bishops of senatorial rank."

    These bishops, representatives of an aristocratic Auvergne family, also descended from the Roman aristocracy since Eustoche, the first of these eight, and Gregory the last, and probably the other six descended from Saint Paule, as seen on a family tree. This continuity is a strength  "Saint Martin was the "patron of kings", almost all made the pilgrimage to the holy tomb, not one dared to brave to the end his formidable power. It is significant that the bishops of Tours alone obtained exemption from taxation and that they constantly resisted the despotic impulses of the Merovingians."

    Volusian, a bishop of Tours exiled by the Visigoths. The Goths of the West seized the city of Tours probably in 471, during the reign of Euric, son of Theoderic I. The occupation, under the Arian religion, persecutor of the Nicene faith, lasted 36 years until 507, knowing that it is not impossible that the city was taken briefly by the Franks between 494 and 496 and then around 498. It is in this context that the bishop Volusian, succeeding Perpet in 489, will be exiled.

    501, Amboise: Alaric II and Clovis, the kings of the Visigoths and Franks, sign peace. "The conference had link on the confines of the two kingdoms, in the small island Saint Jean [today golden island], in the middle of the Loire. Approaching each other, the two princes embraced. [...]Alaric touched the beard of Clovis and Clovis that of Alaric, testimony of an eternal friendship." [LTa&m 1845]
    507, Vouillé, near Poitiers: the victory of Clovis. Six years later, the war resumed and, at the Battle of Vouillé, Alaric was killed, apparently by Clovis himself [L'Histoire de France en BD Larousse 1976, text Christian Godard, drawing Julio Ribera]. + the plank. The Franks invade Aquitaine, the Visigoths are pushed back to Narbonne and behind the Pyrenees.

    But where did he come from ? In his book "The Life of Saint Volusian, Bishop of Tours and Martyr, Patron of the City of Foix," published in 1722, Father De Lacoudre writes : "Saint Volusian whom the city and country of Foix where he is honored with a particular cult call Volusia Voulsia or Bolsia was a native of Auvergne and born perhaps in the capital of that province which is now called Clermont. Others assure with less probability that he was native of Lyon where we do not see that he made his ordinary residence as in Clermont and where he was bound of friendship with what there was of greater. He was moreover very close relative or as some moderns speak nephew of the illustrious saint Perpet or Perpétue his predecessor at the seat of Tours, as Perpet was of saint Eustoche who according to the report of MM Baillet and Savaron was born Auvergnat. They were all three very rich of a noble and old family and of a race of senators of which Auvergne was then filled. An undated and very modern manuscript brings him out of the Volusian emperor but without evidence."

    Then, speaking of Sidonius Apollinaris (430-486), writer, Roman senator, bishop of Clermont : "We could say with more certainty that he was of the Anician family since he was related to Ommace and Rurice, bishop of Limoges, who refers to him as such in the letter he wrote to him as bishop of Tours, or positively assure with the author of the book entitled "The Church of Tours adorned with the virtues of its bishops" that he was of the house of the Sidoines Apolinaires whose father and ayeul had commanded in the Gauls as prefects of the Pretorium and allied to the house of the emperor Avitus by the marriage of Papianilla his daughter with Sidonius who qualifies in addition to a place Volusian of his brother. [term of friendship or kinship ?] [...]Volusian still had an illustrious relative in Tours, it was Fidie Julie Perpetua [to be brought closer to Perpetuus...]to whom her brother who was bishop left by will a golden cross enamelled with relics of the Lord that we do not know. We report here all these circumstances only to point out to the reader that Volusian holding to so many saints could not fail to be so himself. [...] Volusian having thus satisfied the custom of the Romans which wanted the young people to engage at the age of 17 years with the militia what the example of Saint Martin and Sidonia justifies enough and having served the ten years prescribed to the sons of the senators to be able to rise to the high offices, he married some time afterwards with a girl of the house of Ommaces citizens and senators of Auvergne which were extremely rich. [...]This marriage thus made was like many others happy in the beginnings and very unhappy in the continuation."

    470: the writer Sidoine Apollinaire, cousin of bishops of Tours, becomes bishop of Clermont. Coming from the Gallic aristocracy, Sidonius Apollinaris was one of the greatest scholars of his time, author of a brilliant correspondence, also playing a political role with the Gallic emperor Avitus who ruled the Western Roman Empire in 455 and 456. Cousin of Volusian, 6th bishop of Tours, and Ommace, grandfather of Ommace 12th bishop of Tours (who was nephew of Rurice, bishop of Limoges), he was appointed in 470 bishop of Clermont. He is depicted above on a stained glass window in Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral and in a box in "History of Lyon" text A. Pelletier, F. Bayard, drawing Jean Prost, 1979. According to Gregory of Tours, Sidonius' son fought with the Visigoths against Clovis at the battle of Vouillé (507). + his writings on the remacle site.

    Luce Pietri [page 133 of his thesis] also emphasizes Sidonius' closeness to Perpet and Volusian : "To the bishop Perpetuus is addressed in 471 a bill of Sidonius to which the latter attaches, at the request of his correspondent, the text of the speech he has just pronounced in Bourges while presiding in this city at the episcopal election. A friendship based on mutual respect and a community of tastes and opinions had united the two men for a long time already: in 467, or even a little before that date, Perpetuus had asked the poet to compose a piece of verse intended to be engraved on one of the walls of the new basilica Saint-Martin of Tours, built by his care. Sidoine willingly carried out the order given to him by the bishop of Tours: for, he wrote to another of his correspondents, "the privilege of friendship gives him... absolute power in all the requests that he addresses to me...". In this last letter, sent to a certain Lucontius, to submit to his judgment the epigram which he has just completed in the honor of Martin and his successor Perpetuus, the writer complains on the other hand of the long absence of their " brother " common, Volusianus."

    Volusian then turned to the Church and, under the occupation of the Arian Visigoths, in 491, "the people of Tours found in Volusian the bishop they asked for," so obvious was he a continuator of his uncle Perpet. In 495, Alaric II, son of Euric, had him arrested. Luce Pietri : "Volusianus, " suspected by the Goths of wishing to submit to the domination of the Franks ", was struck with a sentence of exile, during the seventh year of his episcopate. The regime of detention to which he was subjected was quickly fatal to him." He died in 498, perhaps in Toulouse or in the valley of the Ariege, undoubtedly of natural death but in obscure circumstances that allowed to erect him as a martyr. His legend rich in miracles would enhance the fame of the counts of Foix, who considered themselves his protégés. In Foix, a church abbatiale Saint Volusien was erected, classified as a historical monument in 1964.

    Left, 498: Martyrdom of Volusian, successor of Perpet, according to a 12th-century Romanesque capital (P.-S.) + other scene [Musée du Château de Foix, Wikipedia]. This martyrdom is not attested to in the texts of the time, one may consult the study by Florence Guillot "Saint-Volusien in the Middle Ages, an abbey in the shadow of Foix Castle". Right, 511: the Visigoth clergy abandon the Arian religion, in Orleans, four years after the Franks defeated the Visigoths at the Battle of Vouillé, to adhere to the Holy Trinity of the Church of Rome ["At the Time of the Barbarian Kingdoms," album in the series "La vie privée des hommes", Hachette 1985, texts Patrick Périn and Pierre Forni, drawings Pierre Joubert]

    His successor Verus was also exiled by the Visigoths Luce Pietri recounts what happened in Tours after Volusian  "Alaric then authorized, in a spirit of appeasement, the Church of Tours to give him a successor; but the newly elected, Verus, suspected in turn of zeal for Clovis's cause, was also forced into exile." The Angevin Licinius succeeded him in 507, probably after the Frankish victory at Vouillé. .

    Charles Lelong, continued : "It may also be argued that the intellectual level, relative to other dioceses, appears to be quite high. As early as the beginning of the sixth century, a school is mentioned in Tours, probably the episcopal school. [...]We know, moreover, that the Touraine of the sixth century belonged to that small part of Gaul which maintained the "civilization of the written word."" This period was marked by profound upheavals, with the end of a Roman empire that seemed eternal and the establishment of fractional and changing Merovingian kingdoms. In the diocese of Touraine, governance was exercised more by the bishops than by the royalty and its representatives. The continuity, coherence and durability of the episcopal action was certainly perceived by the population as a very appreciable comfort...

    The crowd of pilgrims around Martin's tomb ["The Private Lives of Men" 1985, same above].

    A line of great bishops. Luce Pietri [page 131] :"The evolution of the political and military situation during the 2nd half of the 5th century made Tours a much more critical situation than in the first part of the century: in an island of Romanity threatened on all sides by the barbarians of submersion, the city first experienced an almost obsidional anguish, before finally succumbing to the irresistible advance of the Visigoths and being subjected to the harsh regime of occupation. Under the yoke of rulers who were followers of the Arian heresy and persecutors of the Catholic faith, the Church of Martin could fear the worst. However, this whole period is for the city, after the dreary effacement to which the reign of Brice had condemned it, that of the revival and the blooming : the episcopal see finds its dignity and exerts a new authority within the framework of the ecclesiastical province; moreover, Tours, which affirms itself as a high place of the Martinian cult, becomes, in the whole Gallic Christianity, a metropolis of the faith, a spiritual beacon whose light, for the exiled catholicity among the pagan or heretic barbarians, diffuses hope and enlightens the ways of the liberation. This unexpected recovery, at one of the most difficult moments in the history of Tours, was essentially the work of the bishops who succeeded each other on the see of Martin: Eustochius and Perpetuus, then Volusianus and Verus. Was this a fortunate coincidence or was it the conscious will of the voters? The community of Tours has, during this period, carried at its head prelates who proved equally capable of playing the role of spiritual guide of their Church, but also that of political leader of the city. Such continuity in the exercise of multiple and delicate responsibilities is largely explained by the common origin of these bishops, or at least the first three of them. Eustochius, Perpetuus and Volusianus were, according to Gregory, united by close family ties."

    442 to 496: from uncles to nephews, three bishops of Tours, 5th, 6th and 7th, succeed each other : Eustoche, Perpet (with his basilica) and Volusian.
    [bas-relief of the church of Saint Martin d'Auzouer en Touraine, link inventory heritage region Centre, photo Thierry Cantalupo]

    The Gallic and Roman survival by the episcopal aristocracy. Luce Pietri pushes the analysis further, expanding the example of Tours [page 137] : "The accession to the see of Tours of these prelates, who belonged by their birth and training to the social elite of the time, had a decisive influence on the destinies of the city of the Loire. The fact is far from being unique, as the contemporary history of several other cities in Gaul testifies, such as Clermont, Bourges or Limoges, just to mention a few examples of nearby churches. The noble offspring of great families, that the misfortune of the times incited to renounce the vain and fragile prestiges of the world, to whom their attachment to the Roman cause also prohibited to pursue a political career under the barbarian domination, found in the exercise of the episcopal office to reconcile their social ambitions, diverted from the century towards the Church, and their pious inclinations. And above all, these prelates of high lineage put to the service of the communities which were entrusted to them the qualities and virtues traditionally deployed by their ancestors in the service of the State. First of all, the advantages of an intellectual formation that prepared them and helped them to assume their task, by sharpening their awareness of the mission that was entrusted to them : that of safeguarding, in a world that barbarism and heresy threatened to overwhelm, a heritage where the cultural tradition inherited from Rome and the sacred deposit of the true faith were mixed together  administrative and diplomatic abilities as well, and even more so, the ability to evaluate political situations and to make the decisions that their sense of public responsibility imposed upon them. Their social position finally provided them with means of action and influence which were not negligible : a network of high placed relations, thanks to which they were kept informed of the evolution of the conjuncture  important personal financial resources which they could dedicate to the material and moral edification of their Church."

    Luce Pietri returns to the importance of Perpet : "If Eustochius on the one hand, Volusianus and Verus on the other, less favored by duration and circumstances, are a little overshadowed by the brilliance of the reign of Perpetuus, they have, however, the one prepared, the other two extended the action of the latter, working on the common work in a continuity of views that takes on the appearance of a dynastic policy maintained for more than half a century."

  22. The glorious passage of Clovis in Tours and the basilica

    After the Visigoths, here came the Franks and the reconciliation with the Bagaudes. Bouvier-Ajam : "The Bagaudes hardly existed anymore except in the Gallo-Roman principality of Syagrius. There goes a terrible logic of History : the last point of attachment of the bagaudes was the last province of Gaul which remained under Roman domination. And - one saw it - the quasi-totality of these bagaudes refused any support to the last representative, quite theoretical however of the imperial domination.". In other words, the bagaudes existed only to resist the Roman occupation. Bruno Dumézil, in his book "Des gaulois aux Carolingiens" [22 page 71] pushes the analysis further by even outlining an integration of the Bagaudes with the Francs : "When they are attested on the territory that is called Gauls in the sixth century, they have neither a single language, nor a single cult, nor a single historical consciousness. [...]The Franks are above all the men who obey the king of the Franks. [...]So who are they, these founding Barbarians ? Let's say that the Franks of the 5th century are probably the descendants of some ancient Franks (but probably very few), Roman deserters and many Gallo-Roman peasants refractory to the heavy levies of the late Empire. By forcing the line a little, one could argue that the Franks are simply Gallo-Romans transformed into Barbarians to pay less taxes and to follow the star of a charismatic leader". Would they be bagaudés of the North-East of Gaules ? Would Bagaude troops have known a new life by reinforcing and regenerating barbarian troops ? Thus transforming tribes into a conquering people? Bruno Dumézil then lists four factors of attractiveness of the Franks : 1) "Anyone recognized as Frankish benefited from a tax exemption." 2) A Frank was more valuable than a Gallo-Roman, "many Gallo-Romans probably became Franks to be better protected by the Law." 3) "A man's membership in the same people as his ruler made it easier for him to climb the ladder of honors." 4) "Finally, the kings of the Franks at the end of the 5th century had a very modern idea : to launch an identity clothing fashion." Clovis, advised by Clotilde, was going to bring a fifth factor : the Nicene Christianity, that of Martin, that of Tours and Touraine.

    On the left, a Frankish woman in the early sixth century [Pierre Joubert, "At the Time of the Barbarian Kingdoms" 1984]. In the center, Frankish warriors by Liliane and Fred Funcken [volume 1 of "The Costume and Weapons of All Times", Casterman 1986]. On the right, Childeric I (436-481), father of Clovis, with the clothes found in his tomb discovered in 1653 in Tournai [reconstruction Patrick Périn, article 2015].

    The bishop Nizier of Lyon : "When Clovis knew that the miracles [performed in Tours]were things proven, he humbled himself, prostrated himself at the threshold [of the basilica]of the lord Martin and allowed him to be baptized without delay.". Thus, to believe Nizier, the ceremony took place in Rheims, but the firm decision to respect the promise made to Clotilde would have been taken in Tours, thanks to Martin. Gregory of Tours recounts the episode where Clovis, near Tours, struck with his sword a soldier who was removing bread on the territory of this city consecrated by the tomb of St. Martin  "Where will be the hope of victory, if one offends the blessed Martin ?" ("Et ubi erit spes victoriae, si beatus Martinus offenditur ?).

    Excerpt from BD Utrecht 2016 + the plank.(by Joshua Peeters).

    To the left, in 496 it seems, the Battle of Tolbiac where the Franks defeat the Alamans. Was Clovis helped by the God of Clotilde and Martin ? He thanked them for it. + seven images : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 + two tables [Wikipedia] : 1 [Paul Joseph Blanc 1881, the Pantheon in Paris] 2 [Ary Scheffer 1836, Gallery of Battles, Palace of Versailles]. On the right, around the year 500, Clovis, in the basilica of Perpet, decides to be baptized [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]. Recent dating positions this battle in 506 and the baptism in 507, without consensus.

    The baptism of Clovis by Bishop Remi, in Rheims, below in the 9th century, opposite in the 19th century.

    A thousand years apart, we find Queen Clotilde and Bishop Remi and the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove bringing the holy bulb. The patronage of Martin, with the blue cope illustrated with the sharing of the cloak, is added. + representation of the Holy Ampoule in its reliquary, with the dove + icon + image + vitrail [church in Conflans Sainte Honorine] + five page Nhuan DoDuc stained glass windows : 1 2 3 4 5. We'll find hereafter another holy bulb...

    At left, 9th century ivory plaque [Musée de Picardie in Amiens, link]. On the right, drawing from a mural by Désiré-François Laugée in the Sainte Clotilde Chapel of the Sainte Clotilde Church in Paris (1870) ["The Saint Martin Legend in the 19th Century" 1997]. Commenting on this fresco, Albert Lecoy de la Marche [Lecoy 1881], goes so far as to write : "No Martin, no Clovis !".

    The baptism of Clovis was followed by that of many soldiers and their wives, as shown in this painting by Jules Rigo,
    1860 approximately [Musée des Beaux-Arts de Valenciennes].

    In his 2000 book, Charles Lelong attempts to learn more about Clovis' enigmatic first visit to Tours  "This visit to the basilica is difficult to date. Tours had fallen under the dominion of the Visigoths since 471. It is therefore thought that Clovis may have accomplished this during one of the two raids he led in Aquitaine before the great offensive of 507: one between 494 and 496 which led him to Saintes, the other in 498 which he pushed to Bordeaux. But would it be so incongruous to assume that the king of the Visigoths, Alaric II, concerned with good relations with the Franks, could have authorized a pilgrimage of Clovis on the other bank of the Loire?" In this, we can estimate that the civitas Turonorum was occupied by the Visigoths continuously for 36 years, from 471 to 507.

    Extract from a page from the "Clovis I" site + the same scene where Clovis enters the basilica to receive the (honorary) title and crown of consul from the emperor Anasthesius, in a vitrail of the current basilica [Lobin workshop].

    "Triumphal entry of Clovis at Tours in 508", Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury, 1837 [Châteaux of Versailles and Trianon].
    To the left the basilica, in the background the walls of the civitas Turonorum / City (formerly Caesarodunum).

    Clovis acclaimed by the people of Tours. Gregory of Tours, silent on this first passage, is prolix on the second. Charles Lelong : "Clovis' war against Alaric in 507 takes on the appearance of a crusade begun and ended in Tours. Clovis, before committing himself, consults the saint and receives a favorable oracle  he forbids to harm his property, punishes a soldier who has stolen hay. On his return, in 508, he went to the basilica and offered him great gifts. There he receives the diploma of the emperor Anasthase granting him the consulship, puts on a purple tunic and the chlamydia, places a diadem on his head, then, riding a horse, goes to the church distributing on his way gold and silver, acclaimed since that day as consul and august."

    History of France in Comics, text by Christian Godard, drawing by Julio Ribera, Larousse 1976

    Couillard - Tanter 1986 + three boards "Clovis - Visigoths and Franks" : 1 2 3.
    Right, Clovis in front of Martin's tomb ["The Life and Miracles of Bishop St. Martin," 1516, BmT] + variant 1496..

    The religious staging of the Martinian clergy. In her 1980 thesis [page 169], Luce Pietri draws lessons from this investiture : "There has been much questioning of the political meaning of this scene. Whatever the value, diverse, that each of the parties concerned - the emperor of the East, the Gallo-Roman elite and the Frankish king himself - granted to the insignia and the titles put on by Clovis, an observation is essential : all this ceremonial which evokes at the same time the ancient pomp of the triumph, the consularis process and the imperial adventus is charged and even overloaded with Roman colors. The victory celebrated by the Frankish leader was purposely staged as that of Romanity over barbarism. And this is probably what Gregory of Tours wanted to express. [...]Much less attention has been paid to the properly religious and Tourangean character of the scene. The campaign against the Visigoths happily completed, Clovis went back through Tours to fulfill his vows and bring to Martin the tribute of promised offerings. But to the individual expression of gratitude was added the public manifestation of a tribute officially paid by the sovereign to the one who, by his intercession, had granted success to the Frankish arms and politics."

    Then : "The ceremony, which legitimized by romanizing it the power of the king, took place within the framework of the Martinian sanctuary and the triumphal pomp which followed it took the form of a procession directed towards another Martinian place, the ecclesia where the holy bishop had formerly been enthroned. To the authority of the Frankish leader, greeted by the envoys of the emperor Anasthasius and acclaimed by the Gallo-Roman population, Martin thus gave the consecration of a kind of religious investiture. There is no doubt that all this ceremonial was inspired and organized by the Touraine clergy. By these quasi-liturgical solemnities, it was a question of reminding in a general way with the winner that it held its capacity of God; but also to persuade it that it was indebted of it more directly to Martin, the powerful intercessor who had obtained the divine assistance to him. In so doing, Tours, as a crowning achievement of the efforts it had made in the service of the Frankish cause, claimed to have its vocation as a holy city of the new RomanoFranco state recognized." Clovis, then, could have transferred his capital Soissons in Tours. Later, he will prefer Paris ...

    King Chlodovechus / Clovis in the present basilica. This first name later had the variant Ludovicus / Louis.

  23. Queen Clotilde settles in Tours, near the basilica

    Clotilde survives a massacred family. In 486, at age 12, Princess Clotilda had her parents and four brothers murdered by her uncle Gondebaud, now the sole ruler of the Burgundian kingdom. Her husband Clovis did not have time to conquer his homeland, his children did. ["Clotilde first queen of the Franks", texts Monique Amiel, drawings Alain d'Orange, 1980] + cover 2014 edition. + nine plates on Clotilde's youth until her husband's baptism : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.

    Gregoire de Tours tells us that after the death of her husband Clovis, the queen Clotilde (474-545) settled in Tours for more than thirty years : ""She was in the service of the basilica of Blessed Martin there and, full of modesty and goodness, she remained in that place for all the days of her life, only rarely visiting Paris." The queen mother then intervenes with authority and diplomacy in the conflicts between her sons. She died in Tours on June 3, 545 at the age of 70 and was buried in Paris, near Clovis. The Church sanctified her.

    Top left, Clotilde in the Luxembourg Gardens in Paris, 1847 statue by Jean Baptiste Jules Klagmann. Then Clotilde at prayer in the basilica before the tomb of St. Martin, left below, engraving in steel by T. Cregnault 1869 and, right, painting by Carle Van Loovariant] + prayer from Clotilde to Martin to appease her children's quarrels [reprinted from Secher / Olivier / Tirado comic book file, 2019]

    Clotilde in front of the tomb, this time topped by a depiction of the sharing of the cloak. Miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France de Charles V in two different versions, circa 1375 and circa 1412 [BnF].

    In her thesis [page 180], Luce Pietri shows that Clotilde intervened in the life of the city of Tours : "Since her widowhood, Clotilde resided in the states of her eldest son, in Tours, where she devoted herself to prayer and charitable works. In spite of this pious retirement, the queen-mother preserved a certain influence: she used it to intervene perhaps still in the political affairs of the regnum Francorum and certainly in the life of the civitas Turonorum which constituted in its favour a kind of princely dower. With the death of the bishop Licinius, Clotilde disposed a first time of the episcopal seat: with the contempt of all the canonical legislation of which it violated several articles, the sovereign imposed two of her protected, two bishops driven out of Burgundy, Theodorus and Proculus, to which it gave jointly the government of the Church of Tours. After their death, Clotilde did it again by choosing another character, also from the Burgundian kingdom, Dinifius. Because she had no more protégés to place or because with age she was detached more completely from the affairs of this world, the queen left to Clodomir, when the bishop Difinius disappeared, the care to provide for the vacancy of the seat : by order of the king - jusso régis - Ommatius was designated to succeed him."

    Right, stained glass window from the Saint Grégoire des Minimes church in Tours [Van Guy 2005, Fournier workshop, photo Daniel Michenaud, link)

    Sancta Clotildis in the present basilica, Lorin and Lobin workshops [Veranda 2018] + four pages from Nhuan DoDuc's website featuring stained glass windows by Clotilde : 1 2 3 4 (his youth in seven scenes, his death below in the same collegiate church in Les Andelys).

    Gregoire of Tours especially emphasizes Clotilde's piety and her largesse to the monasteries and churches of Touraine. Guy-Marie Oury in his volume 2 of "La Touraine au fil des siècles" (CLD 1977) : "It is regrettable that Gregory of Tours did not provide concrete details of her life in Touraine, for the queen was involved in all the little events of the Church of Tours, helping with the evangelization of the countryside which was slowly going on, providing the resources necessary for the erection of new parishes in the diocese, conversing with the heads of the monasteries or the consecrated virgins of the city, participating in the liturgical celebrations and the stationnale liturgy meticulously organized by St. Perpet a few years before her arrival. She certainly knew Saint Monégonde (who died in 570) since it was for her companions that she built the monastery of St. Peter the Puellier  she probably knew St. Leubais, the successor of St. Bear, others... She had three Burgundian bishops appointed ; but her influence also played in favor of their successors : Ommatius, a member of a great senatorial family of Auvergne, Leon, abbot of Saint Martin and skilled carpenter, from a more modest background  Francilion, a patrician of Poitou ; Injuriosus finally whose parents were poor plebeians of Tours. "

    Didion's stained glass window (1866) recounting the life of Clotilde in the collégiale Notre-Dame des Andelys, in the Eure, in 5 scenes. From left to right, scenes 2 (she retires to the basilica of St Martin), 3 (she does good works there), 4 (her death) take place in Tours [Wikipedia]. There are, in this collegiate church, two other stained glass windows on the life of Clotilde, before her period in Tours : 1 2 (link).

    To the left, Clotilde's last hours in Tours, from "St. Clotilda Queen of the Franks", text Reynald Secher Jacques Olivier, drawings Alfonso Tirado (RSE Nuntiavit 2019), colorized cover of a 1962 Mexican comic book (link) + the last board. + bas-relief of the Basilica of Saint Clotilde in Paris. On the right, like any saint, Clotilde would have gone to heaven, surrounded by angels [St. Roch Church in Paris, link].

    >>>On the adjacent page, one can read the chapter titled "493-541 Clotilda succeeds where Victorina had failed". Excerpts :

    Clotilde more important than Clovis ! Although a future saint and adulated as such, Clotilde, a great inspiration to her royal husband, was not a softy, as told by Olivier Cabanel, on this page from Agoravox : "At the death of Clovis, Clotilde withdrew to Tours, and to better establish the Frankish domain, sent her sons to fight Gondebaud, the Burgundian king of Vienne... she had not forgotten the crimes he had committed in killing Chilperic, her father. The spirit of vengeance that animated Clotilda continued indeed after the death of her husband, and was even exercised after the death of Gondebaud, in 516, against the latter's sons, Sigismund and Gondemar [or Godomar III]. And it is actually in Vézeronce, a small village in the Nord-Isère, that the battle took place, between Franks and Burgundians, on a certain June 25, 524, a battle finally won by Clotilde's sons, including Clodomir, even if he died there, thus allowing, 10 years later, the reality of the kingdom of France..." Olivier Cabanel concludes  "It is indeed to Clotilde, driven by his tenacious revenge, that France took the outline that we know, not so far from that of today, thanks to the victory of his sons over those of Gondebaud.". So, if Clovis is "an overrated king of the Franks," as Jean Boutier wrote in a article in Liberation in 2011, Clotilde is a queen who deserves to be re-evaluated. She who can be considered the mother of France ? Or, if this title was given to Judith of Bavaria, as we will see later, as her grandmother ?

    Clotilde, Queen of the Franks, in the exercise of power, with her husband Clovis [painting by Jean-Antoine Gros (1771-1835)], then her sons.
    In these three images, Clotilde is in charge, manipulating husband and then children (center the division of the kingdom among her sons) (right the anachronism of Herve's basilica). [Wikipedia, Grandes chroniques de saint Denis, Bibliothèque de Toulouse, and illustration of 1889]. Below, 19th century engraving by Edouard Zier titled "Clotilde sets fire to the country of Burgundy".

    Monégonde the Healer. Born in Chartres, married and mother of two daughters who died prematurely, Monégonde took refuge in prayer and youth. Discovering herself to be a healer, she abandoned her home, husband and family to go to Tours, near the tomb of Saint Martin, at the call of Bishop Euphronus, around 561. On her way, in Esvres / Evena, she meets Saint Medard and heals a young girl. In Tours the healings followed one another, she created a foundation to take in the sick and probably died before 573. Her foundation and her cult endure until the 11th century. Her page Wikipedia summarizes Luce Pietri's analysis of her healing gifts. Other link. As with Martin, healings are often equated with miracles. In Tours, the Saint Pierre le Puellier church of a community of nuns, was built by Clotilde in 512 on the site of her monastic cell, near the present-day Place Plumereau. Rebuilt several times, only a few ruins remain (link). + plan + drawing 1755 [Martel de Rochemont, SAT, link].

    Monegonde. At left, stained glass window from the Basilica of Saint Clotilde in Paris (next to the stained glass window of Saint Medard) (photo Robert Harding). At center, 1602 statuette from the church of Rosière la Petite in the commune of Rosières in Belgium. On the right, remains of the Church of Saint Pierre le Puellier. + another photo. + vitrail from the Sainte Monégonde church in Orphin (Yvelines) (Lorin workshop)].

  24. Radegonde and Brunehaut, two "Martinian" queens, two fates

    In the early sixth century, Tours and Poitiers were the holy cities of the Franks, under the patronage of Martin and Hilaire. In his study "The Cult of St. Martin in the Frankish Period" (1961), Eugen Ewig stresses the importance of Remi, the bishop of Reims, and his links with Perpet, with the consequent designation of Tours as a holy city of the Franks, not to mention Poitiers where Martin was a hermit : "Would it be foolhardy to claim that Clovis knew through St. Remi the miraculous power of St. Martin ? It was at the tomb of St. Martin, so it seems, that the king of the Franks publicly manifested his intention to convert, in 498, during a first war against the Visigoths. The Merovingian obtained his decisive victory in 507 under the sign of Saint Martin and Saint Hilaire. The two great bishops of Gaul, linked during their lives by a sincere friendship, teachers and preceptors of the Gallo-Roman episcopate, became the patrons of the kingdom of the Franks. Together, they were invoked by the grandsons of Clovis in the treaty of partition of 567 and by Queen Radegonde in her will. They guarded gates of Rheims; they represented the confessors in the cathedral of Nantes built around 567 by Bishop Felix. Venance Fortunat and Saint Nizier of Trier cite them together. In Mainz, the cathedral restored in the second third of the sixth century was dedicated to St. Martin, the cemetery basilica to St. Hilary. In 591, Saint Yrieix of Limoges instituted the two holy bishops his heirs. The testimonies cited make it possible to date the twin cult of the bishop-doctor and the bishop-ascost to the sixth century."

    Radegonde of Poitiers , born around 520, daughter of Berthaire, king of Thuringia (home of the Turons...), became the fourth wife of King Clotaire I, married in 539, at age 19. Clotilde, settled in Tours, lived another 7 years after this marriage of her son. In 552, after a pilgrimage to Tours to the tomb of St. Martin, considering her husband a murderer, Radegonde founded the abbey Sainte-Croix of Poitiers and retired there as abbess. She enjoyed the support of the bishop of Paris Germain de Paris who came to support her in Tours (story by Canon Vaucelle, 1908). Venance Fortunat, future bishop of Poitiers, supported her and became her biographer. When Clotaire died, she used her reputation and authority to establish peace between his sons. She then had great influence on the great ones of her time, including Sigebert I, son and successor of Clotaire. She died in 587 at about 67 years of age.

    Radegonde Queen of the Franks. 1) her meeting with Clotaire I ; 2) top, in 538, her eventful wedding feast (explanation Wikipedia) then in prayer, bottom see box below ; 3) entry into orders, accompanied by the people. ["Scenes from the life of Saint Radegonde ", 11th century, Bibliothèque municipale de Poitiers, Wikipedia] + image of the wedding (link).
    On the left, the wedding ring. Marital scene (bottom of center llustration above). Radegonde refuses to share her husband's bed and prefers to sleep on the floor. Clotaire seems very upset... They had no children.

    Radegonde, two stained glass windows in the present Saint Martin's Basilica in Tours: workshop Lobin of Tours (Radegonde placing her queenly crown on the tomb) and workshop Lorin of Chartres. Then stained glass window from the church of Saint Radegonde in Poitiers. On the right, the death of Radegonde, stained glass sketch by the Fournier workshop of Tours [Geneste 2018]. + vitrail of the Breathing [Gustave Pierre Dagrant of Bordeaux 1906, St. Radegonde Chapel in Yversay in Poitou, link]. + three stained glass windows : 1 [church of Tournon Saint Martin in Indre] 2 [church of St. Andre in Châteauroux, also in Indre] 3 [Lucien-léopold Lobin 1862, church of Vouneuil sous Biard, near Poitiers] + painting "The Vocation of Saint Radegonde" by Urbain Viguier, 1851, Saint Martin de Couhé church, Poitou, before (link) and after (photo La NR) restoration. + vitrail "St. Gregory blesses the tomb of St. Radegonde " [St. Radegonde's church in Athies in Picardy] + on Nhuan DoDuc's site, a page showing the life of Radegonde in 32 scenes [Ste Radegonde de Poitiers church] and two pages of stained glass windows of Radegonde : 1 2.

    Sainte Radegonde in Touraine. In Tours, on the right bank of the Loire near Marmoutier, there is a semi-troglodytic church named after her, built in the 12th century, enlarged in the 16th and restored in the 19th. Martin is said to have lived and officiated in the troglodytic part [photo at left, link]. The commune of Sainte Radegonde, on which this church and Marmoutier Abbey were located, was attached to Tours in 1964. Near Chinon, a troglodytic chapel, restored at the end of the 19th century, classified as a historical monument in 1967, is dedicated to her [center Wikipedia photo]. + statue of Radegonde in the church of Epuisay adjoining that of her mother-in-law Clotilde [from the work of 130 illustrated pages "Radegonde between Loir and Cher" by Jean-Jacques Loisel 2012, Société archéologique du Vendômois].
    Radegonde consults with John the Recluse in his cave. On the right, Radegonde, coming from the Basilica of Saint Martin of Tours to return to her monastery of Saix, passes through Chinon to consult the hermit Jean de Moûtier known as Jean le Reclus [Church of St. Stephen of Chinon, L.-L. Lobin 1879].

    The culmination of the cult of Martin. Eugen Ewig, continued : "During the sixth century,. Poitiers, however, had to give way. to Tours. [...]Not Saint Remi, nor Saint Medard, nor Saint Marcel or Saint Maurice did not equal the glory of Saint Martin, who remained until Dagobert I the principal patron saint of the Merovingians. Only then did an otherwise powerful rival emerge : the Parisian martyr Saint Denis, patron of the Neustro-Burgundian royal line, who since 680 was to rule nominally over the entire kingdom. [...]From our sources emerges the impression that the cult of Saint Martin reached its peak in the second half of the sixth century. Some information about the bishops allows us to extend this limit still to the first third of the seventh century."

    Clotaire I, son of Clovis and Clotilde, exempts Tours from taxation. To function properly, the Merovingian state of course needed to collect taxes. Clotaire I ordered his officers to "dress tax rolls" throughout the country. The inhabitants of Tours were granted exemption, and the king had these rolls burned in his presence [LTh&m 1855]. At right, miniature about the troubled end of life, circa 560, of Chramn (or Chramn), son of Clotaire I and thus grandson of Clovis and Clotilde. Three scenes are depicted : in the second plan on the right, Chramme and the burning of the basilica Saint-Martin of Tours (here zoomed in), in the second plan on the left, the battle between Clotaire I and the Bretons with Chramme and in the foreground the death of Chramme [Guillaume Crétin, "French Chronicles", BnF].

    The sons of Clotaire, what a terrible family! Venance Fortunat and Gregory of Tours' portrait of King Chilperic I, Clotaire's son and Chramme's half-brother, baptized at Tours, is acerbic (excerpts, link, with this genealogical tree of Clovis' early descendants). Chilperic ruled the northwestern part of the Frankish kingdom, he married in the third marriage to Frederick, the terrible adversary of his sister-in-law, Queen Brunehaut, wife of another of Chramme's half-brothers, Sigebert I. Knowing that before marrying Frédégonde, Chilperic was married to Galswinthe, Brunehaut's sister, who, after Sigebert's death, married Merovea, Chilperic's son and his first wife, you follow ? We continue with the murders of Frédégonde and the life of Brunehaut...

    Three murders involving Frederick in 568, 575 and 586. At left, miniature "Chilperic strangling Galswinthe in front of Frédégonde" [Grandes chroniques de France, 1412, BnF]. In the center, painting "Frédégonde arming the murderers of Sigebert" [Emmanuel Herman Joseph Wallet, Musée de la Chartreuse de Douai]. On the right, Pretextat, bishop of Rouen, accuses Frederick of having him murdered [Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Pushkin Museum, Moscow]. Did Gregory of Tours, who recounts these murders, blacken the attitude of Frederick ?

    Brunehaut, another Merovingian queen who supported the cult of Martin. To stick only to the Frankish queens who supported the cult of Martin, after, Clotilde of Burgundian origin (generation 1), after, Radegonde coming from the kingdom of Thuringia in Germany (generation 2), here is Brunehaut / Brunehilde (547-613) (generation 3) of Spanish Visigoth origin, having abjured Arianism in 566. In the same year, she married Sigebert I (535-565), grandson of Clovis. In his study "The Cult of St. Martin in the Frankish Period" (1961), Eugen Ewig introduces her thus : "Among the devotees of the cult we count Queen Brunehaut. The churches favored by her at the abbey of Autun and Lyon (Ainay) adopted the name of St. Martin. In Trier, we find a similar fact. The Basilica of the Holy Cross, built by the senator Tetradius during a miracle of St. Martin in the Moselle metropolis, was transformed into a Martinian abbey church by the bishop Magnéric, the godfather of the eldest of Brunehaut's grandsons.". Because of her sister-in-law Frederod, Brunehaut, also named Brunehilde, had a very eventful life, leading her to marry Merove, a great-grandson of Clovis and one of his nephews.

    576, Meroveius takes refuge in the basilica to escape from Frederick. By marrying his aunt Brunehaut, with the consent of the bishop Pretextat, Merovius provokes the anger of his stepmother Frederodina, leading his father to lock him up, then to tonsure him and ordain him a priest in Metz. Merovius escaped and took refuge in the basilica of Saint Martin in Tours. His father laid siege to the city, he escaped again, but was betrayed and murdered by one of his relatives in Thérouanne, in 577. A year earlier, before his fatal marriage, at the head of an army charged with invading Poitou, he had stopped at Tours, which he had devastated [in the series "Les reines tragiques", "Frédégonde la sanguinaire" text by Virginie Greiner, drawing by Alessia de Vincenzi, Delcourt 2016] + two plates : 1 2

    Brunehaut as mean as Frederick? While Gregory of Tours had described Brunehaut as "a young girl of elegant manners, beautiful of figure, honest and decent in her morals, of good counsel and pleasant conversation", Frédégaire, in his Chronicles considers that she has aged badly and would have become "woman more cruel than any wild beast". It is this view, putting her on the same level as Frédégonde, that the writer Xavier Snoeck and the cartoonist Sirius in the ninth album "The Dungeon Under the Seine" of their hero Timour, published in 1960, prepublished in Spirou. + the three plates of Timour and Brunehaut's meeting : 1 2 3 + board presentation. The current trend partly rehabilitates Brunehaut and blackens Frederick, such as this page that considers her a serial killer. + another page about Frederick, titled "When a servant girl became queen of the Franks".

    The end of Brunehaut was tragic and excruciating. In 613, aged 66, while regent of the kingdom of Austrasia and facing a rebellion, she was handed over to Clotaire II, king of Neustria, son of Frederick. He has her tortured for three days. Finally, she is tied by the hair, one arm and one leg to the tail of an untamed horse. Her broken body is then burned. Her remains are brought and buried at the Saint-Martin d'Autun Abbey that she had founded. On her page Wikipedia, she is considered "a personality mistreated by traditional historiography" :"In a world where the custom of the Franks was imposed, Brunehaut constantly sought to preserve the remnants of a Roman conception of the state and justice. [...]Hated by some chroniclers, she is described as very authoritarian, energetic, haughty, often cunning, bellicose, manipulative. [...]She was, however, very cultured, a rather rare fact for the time even among kings and nobility, and had a very high awareness of her quality as queen, daughter of a king. She had supporters among the Austrasian and Burgundian Frankish nobility."

    To the left, the wedding of Brunehaut and Sigebert. In the center, Brunehaut in two late 19th century illustrations.
    On the right, the torture of Brunehaut in 613 by Alphonse de Neuville (1835-1885) + variant by the same artist + eight pre-19th century images : 1 [Great Chronicles of France, 14th century, BnF] 2 3 [1480, British Library] 4 [Master Dunois, "Ladies of Renown" by Boccace, 1465] 5 6 [Bibl. Toulouse] 7 8 + ten images from the 19th century : 1 2 3 4 [1851] 5 [Emile Bayard] 6 [Victor Adam 1844] 7 8 [Jules Lavée after Evariste-Vital Luminais 1874, with this variant] 9 10 [Job 1908]. To soften the reflection of this period, we will read the page titled "The Merovingians, a civilization brighter than we think".

    The Abbey of Brunehaut in Autun. Founded in the 6th century by Brunehaut, having collected her remains, the abbey of Saint Martin d'Autun was for a long time a rich and radiant abbey. Only the entrance portal remains... From left to right: engraving by Bardelet, 1741, late 18th century drawing by Jean-Baptiste Lallemand, Brunehaut's tomb before its destruction during the Revolution by Alexandre Lenoir (link), 21st century photo. + sculpture of the portal + plan of the abbey. This abbey could have been raised on a former church created by Martin himself (story, link).

    Venance Fortunat the poet-bishop of Poitiers, from Brunehaut to Radegonde. Born around 530 near Treviso, in Italy, Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus studied the literary arts in Ravenna. In 565, he came to Tours to visit the tomb of Saint Martin to whom he attributed his cure of an eye disease (ophthalmia) (what a prestige to be cured by Martin !...). Becoming close to Queen Brunehaut and famous for his poems, he evolved in the Merovingian high society, until he became attached to Queen Radegonde, which led him to settle in Poitiers, where he became bishop in 600 until his death in 609. A friend of Gregory of Tours, he wrote a poem in four songs on the life of Saint Martin. + his book "The Life of Saint Martin" on the remacle website. + document by Bruno Judic "The Martinian Itinerary of Venance Fortunat" (2013). + paper by Marc Reydellet "Tours and Poitiers: the relationship between Gregory of Tours and Fortunat".

    To the left a miniature from the book "Life of Saint Radegonde by Venance Fortunat" circa 1100 [Bibliothèque municipale de Poitiers]. Then a stained glass window from the church of Sainte Radegonde des Noyers in the Vendée. + page from the Nhuan DoDuc website featuring some of Fortunat's stained glass windows.

    Venance reciting his poems to Radegonde by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912) [Dordrechts Museum in the Netherlands, Wikipedia].
    + vitrail from the church of Sainte Odile in Paris depicting Radegonde, her nuns, and Fortunat.

    589, the revolt of the royal nuns. Both were granddaughters of Clotaire I and thus great-granddaughters of Clovis and Clotilde (generation 4) : Basine daughter of the king Chilperic I, sister of Merovingius who married Brunehaut, and Chlodielde / Clothilde / Chrodielde daughter of King Caribert I. Frédégonde wants to get rid of her daughter-in-law Basine. After, it is said, having her raped by her soldiers, she locks her up in the abbey Sainte-Croix de Poitiers, created by Radegonde (her grandfather's wife). There she joined her cousin Chlodielde and supported her in her rebellion against the abbess Lubovère, accused of excessive rigor and immorality. Mixed account by Jean-Jacques Bourassé in LTh&m 1855 and Jacob Nicolas Moreau in his "Principles of Morals..." 1777 (link) : "They resolved to get rid of Lubovere. "We are treated," they said, "not as daughters of kings, but as daughters of slaves. They joined several of their companions, revolted, broke the doors of the convent left at the head of forty nuns and arrived in Tours. Bishop Gregory, an eyewitness to all that he tells us, obtained from them that they would wait there until the end of the winter. After two months Chlodielde and Basine leave their companions in this city and come to find Gontran who welcomes them. This Prince orders that the bishops will assemble in Poitiers to decide on their complaints. During this time, the fugitive nuns who had remained in Tours indulged in the most scandalous libertinism. Some of them even got married and the Princesses came to join them while waiting for the assembly that had been promised to them. Soon they bring back their companions to Poitiers, a crowd of young debauched join them. Gregory makes vain efforts to recall them to their duty; they despise his advice and forget their engagements. An assembly of bishops tries to make them hear the voice of the religion; the bishops are insulted and mistreated. The two princesses have Lubovère kidnapped, deliver the monastery to the plunder, and give the goods to govern to their affidés. Finally the excommunication came to strike these indocilious nuns. Basine consented to return to the monastery ; but the haughty Chlodielde withdrew to a land of which Childebert granted her the enjoyment."

    Prostitution in Christian countries through the centuries. Some of the revolted nuns of 589 probably became prostitutes... Saint Augustine in the 5th century: "Suppress prostitutes, you will disturb society with libertinism". Christian tradition views prostitution as a necessary lesser evil. Where do we fit in between nuns remaining virgins, married women becoming unmarried, celibates who may be considered dishonest or sorcerers, and prostitutes? Merry widows ?... [painting of undetermined origin on a medieval scene of defiance, page "History of Prostitution in France"] + commented on miniature depicting "a brothel or sweat lodge scene" in the late Middle Ages ["Les renaissances," Belin 2013, BnF] + two other illustrations : 1 2 3 [15th century, BnF] In the mid-15th century, parents encouraged their sons to fornicate at prostibulum (link). This was then considered a venial sin, while luxury was one of the seven capital sins.

  25. Gregory of Tours, the cult of Martin and his virtus

    Baud / Baldus, Euphron / Euphronius and Gregory / Gregorius the 16th, 18th and 19th bishops of Tours
    [Saint Martin d'Auzouer en Touraine church, link heritage inventory region Centre, photo Th. Cantalupo]
    Right Gregory on the chevet of Saint Gatien Cathedral in Tours, recognizable by the symbols
    of the quill pen and the book ["Tours secret" 2015 Hervé Cannet, photo Gérard Proust]

    With his basilica, Perpet gave a boost to the cult of Martin. Gregoire of Tours (538-594), the historian of the Franks, revived it, as Bruno Judic shows in a article from 2009 titled "The origins of the cult of St. Martin of Tours in the 5th and 6th centuries." "The episcopate of Gregory, bishop of Tours from 573 to 594, marks an essential stage in the rise of the Martinian cult. Gregory had been born in 538 in Auvergne and had a great devotion to St. Julian of Brioude. But he was also related to the bishop of Tours Euphronius, whom he succeeded. Gregory's work is considerable. He is certainly well known for his "History of the Franks" or rather "Ten Books of Stories" according to the original title. Thanks to Gregory we have the relation of Clovis' passage to Tours, in 507, before and after the battle of Vouillé."

    Church of Saint Solomon and Saint Gregory in Pithiviers : Bishop Gregory preaches.

    Gregory turns Martin into a superhero. In addition to his voluminous Historia Francorum, Gregory published four books on the miracles of Martin. Charles Lelong in his 2000 work "Martin of Tours, life and posthumous glory" : "Like Perpetuus and Paulin of Perigueux, he presents him as a great wonderworker whose virtue is still active  "No one can doubt his past power by contemplating the benefits he bestows today. He still manifests himself in our time. The lame are made straight, the blind receive their sight, demons flee and all other ills are healed. He also reminds us, even more forcefully, that Saint Martin was an apostle "rising like a new sun destined by divine mercy for the salvation of the Gauls, and even as the greatest of the saints, "special patron of the whole world". However, he emphasizes new features: the saint of Sulpice Severus, always ready to forgive offenses, metamorphoses into an implacable avenger, protector of the city of which he remains the bishop par excellence, and providence of the kingdom: on two occasions, it is his intervention that puts an end to the "civil" wars in 534 and in 574. So that Tours takes the figure not only of a kind of Merovingian Lourdes but of religious capital." + study 1997 on the diffusion of Gregory's writings by Pascale Bourgain and Martin Heinzelmann.

    Couillard - Tanter 1986 + article by Elisabeth Lorans "Christian Buildings of Gregory of Tours" [Ta&m 2007]
    + article "Gregory, historian and cantor of Martin," illustrated with a sixth-century manuscript [Fasc. NR 2012].

    Gregory's writings (including those on Martin) are available in their entirety on this page of the remacle site.

    At left, a stained glass window grouping Gregory, Martin, and Clotilde in the church of Saint Gregory of the Minimes in Tours [Van Guy 2005, Fournier workshop, photo Daniel Michenaud, link) (the basilica in the Hervé version, gros-plan). At center-left, engraving by François Dequevauviller (1745-1817) colored after Louis Boulanger (1806-1867). At center right, Gregory holding Martin's tomb in his hands [stained glass pencil sketch, alongside St. Seine, Atelier Dagrand, Bordeaux, link]. At right, sanctus Gregorius in the present basilica [Lorin workshop].

    Bruno Judic: " Gregory had an important role with some Frankish kings, in particular with Sigebert, king of Austrasia from 561 to 575, his brother Gontran, king of Burgundy from 561 to 592, of Brunehaut wife of Sigebert and of Childebert II, son of Sigebert and Brunehaut, king of Austrasia (575-596) and Burgundy (592-596). Gregory was able to expand the cult of St. Martin, to promote pilgrimage to Tours and to encourage the spread of Martinian patronage throughout the Frankish world and beyond. [...]It is an actualization of Martin that gives a new image of the cult and involves a considerable rooting and deepening of this devotion." This goes beyond the Frankish borders since Cararic, king of the Suèves in Galicia, from 550 to 558, abjured Arianism when his son was cured of an illness through the intercession of Martin (+ brodery 15th century [Musée des Tissus de Lyon, Maupoix 2018].

    Couillard - Tanter 1986 + the two plates on Gregory : 1 2. Right statue of Jean Marcellin, circa 1852, in the Louvre [Wikipedia]. + two pages of a tribute by Evelyne Bellanger titled "Grégoire de Tours, père de l'histoire de France", in Mag. Touraine No. 59 of October 1994 : 1 2 (for the fourteenth centenary of his death, 594-1994)

    To the left, Gregory of Tours in the sacramentary of Marmoutier for the use of Autun, ca. 850 [Autun Library, Wikipedia]. + study by Cécile Voyer , in 2013, on this sacramentary. On the right, Gregory tells... ["History of Brittany" volume 1, texts Reynald Secher, drawings René le Honzec, 1991] + the board

    Jacques Fontaine, in the preface to Luce Pietri's thesis, emphasizes the important political role held by Gregory : "The Frankish monarchs showered the Church of Tours with goods, but they often imposed a heavy tutelage on it  they were devoted to St. Martin, but wanted the Tourangean bishops to be devoted to them, and they intended to be the only ones to benefit politically from the spiritual prestige of the saint and his tomb. It took the strong personality, but also the social prestige, of Gregory, to see the completion of this double exaltation of the cult and the city to which the person of Martin and the pen of Sulpice had given the first rise. Gregory was a shepherd who stood up to the demands and threats of the princes, and who knew how to consolidate the authority of the successors of Saint Martin. The Martinian city then completes the remodeling of its urbanism around the basilica, quite distinct from the cathedral, the rhythms of its social life, the very functions of a civitas chief town that became a holy city."

    Then  "A counter-current to a history full of noise and fury, the Church of Tours puts itself, thanks to the development of this cult, at the service of human miseries most often abandoned by an incoherent and brutal political power. This new Martinian order in the city asserted itself all the more vigorously since recourse to the spiritual intercession of the saint was associated with the exercise of all kinds of responsibilities that the lack of civil power often obliged the bishops of the 6th century to take on in all sorts of areas. The figure of Gregory of Tours receives here a historical stature that equals and exceeds that of the writer: a writer always committed, but first of all a man of action who realized even more than he said and dictated". On Gregoire's national and local action, one may consult Catherine Réault-Crosnier's article, in 2012. + the acts of the 1994 colloquium "Gregoire de Tours et l'espace gaulois", with in particular the article by Henri Galinié "Tours, des archives du sol".

    And, in introduction to this colloquium, Luce Pietri concluded rather grandiloquently : "In this Gallic territory which is at the heart of the mystery of providential history, Tours is not only the city of which Gregory is the bishop and the historiographer. As Michelet already noted, it appears in Gregory's account as the Christian equivalent in sixth-century Gaul "of what Delphi was for ancient Greece": the city where the decisions of divine providence are revealed. It is the city where, in the basilica of Saint Martin, Clovis was promised the domination of Gaul; the city where, at the time of his descendants who were fighting each other, the concordia, the pledge of the new alliance, could still be realized: thus in 574, on the very day when Chilperic, Sigebert and Gontran made peace by renouncing to fight each other, three paralytics sent to the Martinian basilica were straightened up there. Thus in Tours, God, through Martin, reveals the meaning of the events, of which Gaul is the theater and the stake, for the salvation of the whole universe."

    This brings us back to Jacques Fontaine 'Gregory of Tours did not only continue and flourish the tradition of a Martinian literature to which are also attached the names of the Tourainean bishop Perpetuus and Venantius Fortunat, drawn from Ravenna to Gaul by his veneration for Saint Martin. Gregory has, in a way, brought to completion what had begun the Aquitanian Sulpice Severus and many Christians contemporaries of Martin : this "assumption of responsibility" - Gallia Martinum sumpsit - which, in two centuries, made Martin one of the most popular saints of the West; and Tours, one of the high places where liturgies and pilgrimages attracted crowds of believers, from princes to the miserable." + article "La Touraine au temps de Grégoire" by Charles Lelong in "Tours Informations" of December 1994.

    The pilgrimages of St. Martin in the 6th century (at the time of Gregory) and in 1985 ["Life and worship of St. Martin", C. Lelong 1990]. Charles Lelong in his book of 2000: "It is a phenomenon above all regional and, for a significant part, diocesan : 27% of pilgrims are from Touraine, 12% come from foreign countries, Spain, Italy or even the East. On the left fifteenth-century carved corner post, 26 rue de la Monnaie in Tours, depicting a pilgrim [Catalogue 2016]. To the right and below, images from the page of the Christian Rome website on pilgrims. + article by Bruno Judic 2005 "The Pilgrimage to St. Martin of Tours from the Seventh to the Tenth Centuries".

    The virtus of Martin's relics multiplies the miracles. In the wake of Sulpice Severus and Perpet, Gregory of Tours impressively amplified the miracles of Martin and the remains of his corpse, as Eugen Ewig shows in his study "The Cult of St. Martin in the Frankish Period" (1961) :"This is an actualization of Martin that gives a new image of the cult and implies a considerable entrenchment and deepening of this devotion. In these four books, Gregory collected the testimonies of 267 cases of miracles or devotions performed at the tomb of Saint Martin. Each case gave rise to the drafting of a kind of "card" probably by the clerics at the service of the basilica : it was noted thus the names of the characters concerned, the geographical and social origins, the motivations of the visit to the shrine. [...] Devotion also led to take relics of the saint : a cloth placed on the tomb, dust, but especially oil contained in ampoules, small vials, which were deposited near the tomb so that the liquid is charged with the "virtus" of the saint and then carried as a relic.". Olivier Guillot, in his book "Saint Martin apostle of the poor" (2008) sees in it "the possibility of having an infinite quantity of these relics and, by this, a greater facility to multiply the churches dedicated to Saint Martin", with "a progressive pullulement quite exceptional from the course of the sixth century". The virtus / virtue of the saint also remains alive, beyond his death, to attribute military victories. It was Paulinus of Perigueux, probably under the influence of Perpet, who inaugurated this new kind of miracle with the victorious exit of Egidius at Arles against the Visigoths in 461 or 462. Gregory gave it greater prestige with the victory of Clovis at Vouillé. Charles Martel will follow, and many crowned heads, including Louis XI, so eager to benefit from the virtus. Until Foch for some...

    This vial contained Martin's virtus! Oil in small vials deposited near the tomb, so that the liquid would become charged with the virtus of the saint, carried away as relics. In 1865, this vial was discovered with coins of the emperors Honorius and Majorian. An inscription indicates that it comes from the tomb of Martin. + two pages of explanations : 1 2 [Lecoy 1881]. + article Historia Special #112 (2008, link).

    Lucre, affairism and imposture. Jacques Verrière describes the excesses of this cult  "The humble Martin, "great benefactor of the weak" (Gregory), had become, according to the chronicles of the time, "the true treasure of the city".His gift of universal healing had made Tours a sort of medieval Epidaurus that attracted so many pilgrims, especially around the 4th of July and the 11th of November, that it was compared to Rome or Jerusalem. Martin was, despite himself, the primary source of this phenomenal expansion. A shocking and obviously unnatural association made him the guarantor and the goodwill of a triumphant golden level! One dares not imagine what his reaction might have been in the face of this very dubious osmosis between lucre and devotion, fervor and business." [Verry 2018]. Evoking also the control of Merovingian monarchs, then Carolingian and Capetian, on the abbey Saint Martin de Tours : "Not only was the name of Martin attached to institutions whose wealth was nothing less than evangelical, but, in addition, the secular power held henceforth the high directoin. From this point of view again, Martin's "heirs" went against one of his major principles, he who had never stopped defending the independence of the Church from the political power, especially with the emperors Valentinian I and Maximus. It is not excessive to speak of imposture, of a double imposture."

    Gregoire, an anti-model for historians today. As on this page on Catherine Réault-Crosnier's site, Gregory of Tours has often been considered "The father of French history," when he is only the one who wrote the History of the Franks of the early part of that kingdom. This great work, however, was continued beyond his death by the Chronicle of Frederick until about 800 and is an essential part of our history. While he was often held up as a model, most notably in LTa&m 1845 by Stanislas Bélanger, 1845, from which the first two illustrations below are excerpted, this assessment is now subject to strong criticism, particularly in this sentence from his page Wikipedia : "A gullible hagiographer, he does not hesitate to peddle Christian legends, amalgamating accounts of different origins, dates, and values, so that his History of the Franks is " objectively false "". Behind what sounds like praise, for the time, Luce Pietri, in her article from 1994 "Gregory of Tours and the Geography of the Sacred" is ultimately the most damning with this last sentence  "With these works, Gregory gives rise, in the literature of holiness, to a particular genre, the hagiography."

    With Gregory, whatever the association of these first two illustrations [LTa&m 1845] say, we are far from a "History relying on Truth" ! Even if it does reveal elements of truth that we wouldn't know without it... The illustration on the left is inspired by the one on the right, an engraving by André Thevet in "Portraits and Lives of Illustrious Men," 1584 [Gallica]. + two engravings LTh&m 1855 : 1 2.

    Gregory's silences. In his desire to exalt a Christian faith that is not always glorious, Gregory sometimes condemns bad behavior, sometimes discreetly evades embarrassing subjects. Here is an example presented by Luce Pietri (his thesis, page 128) : "It was during the last operations that the Visigoth Euric [son of Theodoric]led in this area that the city of Tours fell into his hands. No chronicle has preserved the precise date of this episode, on which Gregory himself is silent: lacking information or rather wishing to make the oblivion on an event that grieved his heart, the historian confesses the presence of the Visigothic occupier in Tours that, when, several years after the fall of the city, the resistance opposed by the Tourangeaux bishops offers him the opportunity of a more glorious story for his city. "If few Tourangeaux today know that their city was occupied for over twenty years by the Goths of the west, it is the fault of Gregory ... Or rather because he was the only historian of this period poor in writings.

    Nicolas Jarry and Thierry Jigourel on the script and Erwan Seure - Le Bihan on the drawing present a Martin-like Gregoire traveling on a donkey.
    ["Breizh Histoire de la Bretagne", volume 2 "A New Land", editions Soleil 2017] + three plates: 1 2 3.

  26. From the Merovingians to the Carolingians, from cloaks to chapels

    Between the kingdom of Paris, Austrasia, Aquitaine and Neustria. The page Touraine from the Cosmovisions  site: "The history of Touraine during the Merovingian period is, like that of all Gaul, extraordinarily confused. [... After the death of Clotilde, her son]Clotaire again united all Gaul under his authority, but, after his death (561), the troubles resumed, more serious, and Touraine passed constantly, as a result of the wars that Clotaire's successors fought, from one kingdom to another. It depended at first on the kingdom of Caribert of Paris, then, on the death of the latter (567), it was attached to Austrasia (Sigebert [Brunehaut's husband]) ; Chilperic [king of Neustria] disputed it with him and the two kings personally, where Mummole, Roccolene, Merovia, on their behalf, seized, on several occasions, the capital, which, despite the presence on its episcopal throne of Gregory of Tours, was unable to avoid numerous looting. The bishop himself ran great risk when the count Leudaste denounced him to Chilperic. In 587, at the time of the Treaty of Andelot, Touraine again depended on the kingdom of Austrasia; in 596, it obeyed Thierry III, [king of Neustria, i.e.] king of Orleans and Burgundy. Dagobert I ruled all of Gaul, but in 630 he gave up the southern part of it, Aquitaine, to his brother Caribert II  he did, however, keep Touraine. This, except Loches, which was occupied in 742 by the Aquitains, followed the destinies of the Frankish kingdoms, especially that of Neustria." + map of Neustria in 752 [Wikipedia].

    In the seventh and eighth centuries, bishops subject to the will of kings. Charles Lelong: "the deficiencies are no less manifest, which are moreover common to all Gaul", notably a very generalized illiteracy. In the seventh and eighth centuries, there will be stagnation and degradation rather than evolution, and it will take the arrival of Alcuin (see the next chapter) for a new impetus to be given, at the beginning of the ninth century. "The Merovingian rulers, in order to enslave the Church and seize its property, appointed more and more often for bishops and abbots laymen with no other qualification than their devotion to the sovereign. Already under the reign of Chilperic, very few clerics reached the episcopate. Soon Tours would have as its bishop Sigelaicus (619-620), a relative of Dagobert : he was a count of Bourges, married and the father of a child, Sigiran, whom he made his archdeacon. At the head of the venerable abbey of Saint-Martin, one will find a Teusinde, in addition abbot of Saint Wandrille, who dissipated in four years the goods of this convent... The degradation of the recruitment led to a collapse of the institutions and the debasement of the faith. The time of Charlemagne will be long in coming."

    Tours second Rome. "Le Magazine de la Touraine" No. 60 of October 1996 published an 11-page dossier "Pélerinages à Saint-Martin", reprinting texts and captioned illustrations (including the one reproduced below in the center and others) from the book "Saint Martin de Tours" by Canons Bataille and Vaucelle published in 1925. Here is the beginning of the introduction : "When in 371 the Tourangeaux went to Poitou to seek out Saint Martin to make him their bishop, they had no idea that they were in the process of giving their city a reputation as a "second Rome." Around the tomb of "the man with the shared coat", pilgrims would not cease to flock. Tours became one of the beacons of the Christian world. In 938, Pope Leo VII attested that no other place of pilgrimage, with the exception of Saint Peter's in Rome, attracted "such a large number of supplicants from such diverse and distant countries. Popes, kings, emperors... will venerate the precious shrine of the "thirteenth apostle": Christ aside, no other figure has exerted such a tenacious influence." The magazine appeared just after the September 1996 visit to Tours of Pope John Paul II in 1996, as five other popes had previously done in Hervé's previous basilica. It opened the "Martinian Year" commemorating the sixteenth centenary of the death of the thaumaturge.

    Stanislas Bellanger, in his work LTa&m 1845, about the Basilica of Perpet : "One of the first privileges with which our sovereigns endowed it, was the right of asylum. Anyone who crossed the threshold was safe from prosecution. The princes and the great ones often had recourse to it. Willacaire, Duke of Aquitaine, Gontran-Boson, Merovia, son of King Chilperic, and many others, successively found a refuge there, which superstition, even more than piety, prevented from being violated." Beyond that, Mark Mersiowsky, in a article from 2004 titled "St. Martin of Tours and the Carolingian Chancelleries," points out that : "Under the reigns of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, the writing of deeds by the addressee was exceptional. This was, however, the case for some of the diplomas of Louis the Pious for Saint Martin. Very close personal relations existed between this establishment and the imperial chancellery".

    Stained glass windows in the present basilica dealing with events in the Perpet basilica [Lobin circa 1900, link]. 1) Ultrogoth, Frankish queen, wife of Childebert I (fourth son of Clovis), condemned to exile in 558, after her husband's death. 2) Eloi (588-660), bishop of Noyon, minister and close advisor to King Dagobert I. 3) Baud, of Frankish descent, 16th bishop of Tours from 546 to 552 and referent to King Clotaire I, another son of Clovis (his life here). + another vitrail : in 559, Williachaire, a Frankish nobleman, took refuge in the basilica, the specter of Martin broke his bonds.

    Engraving by Karl Girardet [LTh&m 1855]

    In 732, Charles Martel saved the Basilica of Perpet from being pillaged. The Battle of Poitiers took place in several locations as far south as Tours. The Saracens did not come to invade the Frankish kingdom but to plunder the very rich abbey of Saint Martin de Tours and the surrounding churches. "It is by the plundering of this sanctuary that King Abd el Rahman thinks he can best bring down the power of the one whom, on his side, they call a consul, Roman-style; and, on this Arab side, it is recognized that as soon as this design was manifested, Charles Martel went into action to prevent it. And on the Frankish side, it is indeed the existence of this same design, manifested from the siege of Poitiers, which is indicated just before Charles Martel's decision to go on the attack." [Olivier Guillot, "Saint Martin apostle of the poor", Fayard 2008, + link]. Charles Martel, grandfather of Charlemagne, was one of those who revived the cult of Martin, which had declined in the seventh century. He "disseminated the cult in the territories that had passed under his rule, while the metropolitans of Germania, archbishops of Mainz, made the bishop of Tours the patron saint of their cathedral" (Michel Laurencin in the Martinian Conferences of 1996/1997). Did the first of the Carolingians believe he was inspired by Martin in his fight against the Saracens ?

    Excerpt from History of France in Comics, fascicle 3, text by Jacques Bastian, drawing by Milo Manara, Larousse 1976
    + the three plates recounting this battle : 1 2 3

    The Islamic army commanded by the Amir Abd ar-Rahman left the burning Poitiers Abbey and set out for Tours where the Charles Martel army awaited them [Graham Turner 2008, link]. It appears that the battle took place in several places between these two cities.

    Here the Battle of Poitiers is called the Battle of Tours (also on the page English Wikipedia and in a recent video game, cover, link). [LTa&m 1845] + other engraving [Karl Girardet, LTh&m 1855] + tableau by Charles de Steuben 1837 [Château de Versailles, link] + thirteen other illustrations of the battle : 1 (thumbnail) 2 3 [H. Grobet] 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

    Charles Martel stripped the Tourangeau clergy. Eugène Giraudet in "L'histoire de la ville de Tours" (1873) : "Wishing to reward the companions of his glory, Charles Martel stripped the clergy of their lands or benefits, to distribute them to the leaders of his warriors. This spoliation, which soon followed the fall of the Merovingians (739), caused considerable disorder in the Gallo-Franco church. The Church of Tours had, the first, the pain to see conferring the ecclesiastical titles to the leudes of Charles, invested at the same time of the properties attached to these dignities. This spoliation earned Charles Martel an implacable hatred on the part of the clergy, who pursued him with their invectives even after his death, which occurred shortly thereafter, in 741." These exactions against the clergy were widespread throughout the kingdom; as this page shows.

    Under the threat of Aquitanian invaders. Pepin the Short succeeded his father Charles Martel and the clergy was relieved. Giraudet : "As soon as he came to the throne, Pepin, like all new dynastic leaders, sought to conciliate the clergy of Tours, granting charters of immunities to the Chapter of St. Gatien[at the time St. Maurice] and to the monks of St. Martin and Marmoutier  moreover he allowed them to resist episcopal claims, restoring to them the greater part of the property his father had disposed of in favor of the leudes. The reign of Pepin was only one continuation of fights, initially against the Saxons, then against Aquitains. Tours, placed on the limits of the duchy of Aquitaine, had to suffer all the ravages of the Frankish armies and the tribes of the south; this war of extermination lasted eight years (700-708). The count of Poitou, ally of Vaïfre, duke of Aquitaine, took advantage, in 765, of the momentary distance of Pepin, and tried an irruption on the territory of our city; the men-at-arms, vassals of the abbey of Saint Martin having at their head Wulfard, abbot, marched to meet them and, after a fight to outrance, succeeded in pushing back these invaders and to put them in rout."

    Pepin the Short begs St. Martin. "Pepin was just triumphing over his last expedition against the Aquitans, when feeling in danger of death, he sent to Tours, begging the great St. Martin to heal him, and soon afterwards had himself carried to Perigueux as far as that city, in spite of his state of suffering, and himself offered magnificent gifts to the abbey, hoping by these means to give more weight to his orations. But the moment had arrived; he recovered enough strength to return to Paris where he died, in October 768, after having divided his states between his two sons, Charles and Carloman. The death of the latter made Charles [the great, Magnus, Charlemagne]only master of the power  having made himself recognized by the lords, he knew to attach them with the help of promises. brilliant"

    The beginnings of Saint Martin's Abbey. Guy-Marie Oury in "Religious History of Touraine", 1962, presents the abbey of Saint-Martin : "His origins remain shrouded in obscurity. In the time of Gregory of Tours, the basilica that rises over the saint's tomb is served by a community of clerics headed by an abbot  around it sprang up several small monasteries. At the beginning of the Carolingian era, St. Martin appears as a large unified community, obeying a single leader." Charles Lelong in "L'histoire religieuse de la Touraine" (CLD 1962) : "The status of the clergy of Saint-Martin at the time remains uncertain. It was not until about 674 that the Benedictine rule was adopted, admittedly with such accommodations that Charlemagne would accuse them of sometimes calling themselves monks and sometimes churchmen." The enrichment provided by pilgrimages gave more and more importance to these abbots of the chapter of Saint Martin's Abbey. Until 898, more than twenty are known, of whom Wikipedia lists list.

    The Carolingian revival of the cult of Martin. With Charles Martel and, in 732, the battle of Poitiers / Tours, we have already mentioned the Carolingian rulers' attraction to Saint Martin. In his study "The Cult of Saint Martin in the Frankish Period" (1961), Eugen Ewig provides further clarification : "It seems that Pepin of Herstal, as duke of the Austrasians, propagated the cult of St. Gereon of Cologne, The situation changed, when Pepin and his son Grimoald got their hands on the royal treasury and its precious relic, the cope of St. Martin. Two foundations of Pepin of Herstal seem to testify to the adoption of the Martinian cult : Saint Martin of Utrecht and Saint-Martin of Cologne, It was probably at this time that the name of the Martinian relic passed to the Carolingian oratory, the chapel, and its servants, the chaplains. The earliest evidence dates from the time of Charles Martel. Under the leadership of Fulrad, a trusted man of the king Pepin the Short, the chapel became the most important -central institution in the kingdom."

    At Aachen, capital of the Carolingian Empire, the palatine chapel with the emperor's throne in the center [Wikipedia illustrations]
    + restitution of the palace [Nathan 2009].

    From the cloak of Martin to the Merovingians and then to the Chapel of Aix. This appropriation of Martin's cloak/cloak, the half cloak he left to the wretch and which would have been recovered (one wonders how...), predates the arrival of the Carolingians. In the Collective 2019, Lucien-Jean Bord quotes this formula from a "diploma" by Thierry III, Merovingian king, in 679 : "They will have to take an oath in our oratory, on the cloak of the lord Martin where the other oaths were held". The use of the imperfect tense at the end of the sentence shows that this practice was already ancient." Olivier Guillot ("Saint Martin Apostle of the Poor" 2008) explains, "The procedure was truly understood as the means of making the court take the oaths by making them fear that Martin, in his "virtue" would punish perjurers harshly." Preciously preserved, this cope would therefore have passed into the hands of the Carolingians. The page Wikipedia dealing with the word "Chapel" provides clarification  "From a hagiographic point of view, the St. Martin's cope or capa sancto Martino initially refers to the relic of the officer's cloak of St. Martin. It gave its name to the treasury of relics collected by the powerful abbot of Tours under regal authority. The Palatine Chapel of Aix-la-Chapelle built in a so-called resting place equipped with hot springs, called for this reason Aquae or Aix, was nicknamed from the Latin diminutive capella, referring to the small fraction of relics imported from the cope of St. Martin of Tours that lay under the oratory of this building. It can be assumed, that, thanks to the international influence of Aachen, the word capella (then " chapel " in French) was used, as early as the ninth century, to designate other religious buildings and places of Christian worship that did not have full parish rights, i.e., without the status of an official church according to episcopal authority."

    As for the origin of this cope, it is very difficult to believe that it is the half coat of Amiens, Lucien-Jean Bord agrees. He finds it very plausible that it is "one of the silk pallium delimiting the places once sanctified by Martin, such as the cella of Marmoutier or the room of Candes where the wood of the beds of the saint, relics officiated by Perpetuus, are kept, but even more so the veil covering his tomb". This veil would then have been kept in Candes and then entrusted to Clovis or one of his successors. Its function was to "guarantee the circulation of power", like a "passage of witness".

    Let us take up Eugen Ewig 'The history of the Martinian cult in the eighth and ninth centuries has yet to be written. But it is certain that the cult of St. Martin spread very quickly in most of the countries conquered or reconquered by the Carolingians  in Narbonne Gothia, as well as in Retia and the duchies of southern Germany, then even in Saxony. Most of the tax churches granted around 743 by Carloman to the newly created bishopric of Wurzburg were dedicated to the bishop of Tours. The abbey church in Tours received important donations as far away as Alemannia and Italy. Its school attracted the elite of Carolingian Europe. The archbishops of Mainz, metropolitans of Germania as successors of Saint Boniface, also contributed to spreading the glory of the Tours saint, patron of their cathedral."

    The collegiate church of Saint Martin in Angers is a fine example of the Carolingian architectural renaissance. On the right, evolution in the 5th, 9th and 18th centuries. Links : 1 (Wikipedia) 2 (Balades.Patrimoine) 3 (official website). "As early as the 5th century, a first building was founded on the site. It was enlarged in the 6th and 7th centuries during the Merovingian period. The project then becomes more ambitious than the previous ones by the creation of a vast transept, each arm of which is extended by an apse which brings to the whole a great magnitude." + documentation [Department 49].

  27. Alcuin and Vivien abbots of Saint-Martin, an innovative scriptorium

    Evangelist and sacred tree destroyer, was Charlemagne a rogue disciple of Martin ? Early in his reign, the king of the Franks Carolus Magnus / Charlemagne, grandson of the 732 victor over the Saracens, was a great destroyer of pagan Saxons, committing massacres to evangelize them. Their submission was long, from 772 to 804, and very difficult. Wikipedia : "Charlemagne made his first expedition to Saxony in 772, destroying in particular the main shrine, the Irminsul, a symbol of the resistance of Saxon paganism and meeting place of the pagans who brought him an offering after each victory; then, from 776, after the Italian interlude, begins a fierce war against the Saxons, who, commanded by Widukind, a Westphalian leader, put up a vigorous resistance. There followed several campaigns marked by the devastation of various parts of Saxony and the temporary submission of chieftains, but also by a serious setback for the Franks (of) in 782 at the Süntel, near the Weser. This defeat led to a retaliatory operation that ended with the massacre of 4,500 Saxons at Verden. Widukind finally submitted in 785 and was baptized. " The Catholic Church, after canonizing Charlemagne, removed from its calendar "the emperor who converted the Saxons by the sword rather than by the peaceful preaching of the Gospel." This was indeed a far cry from the "Martin method" !

    The World Tree Irminsul was cut down in 772 on the orders of Charlemagne. In the 1st volume of the comic strip Durandal, published by Soleil Productions in 2010, drawing by Gwendal Lemercier, text by Nicolas Jarry, it's Charlemagne himself who wields the axe. + four plates : 1 2 3 4. + two 19th century engravings : 1 [Wilhelm Wagner 1882] 2 + three representations of the Irminsul  symbol: 1 2 3. A little earlier, not far away, in Hesse, St. Boniface of Mainz, nicknamed the Apostle of the Germans as Martin was the Apostle of the Gauls, had felled in 724 the Oak of Thor (vitrail of the cathedral of Truro in Cornwall + drawing by Bernhard Rode 1781 + other image). Boniface is also the creator in 742 of the already mentioned Fulda Abbey, so inspired by Martin, who is patron of the Mainz Cathedral, which is attested as early as 752 according to Götz Pfeiffer [Collective 2019].

    Martin and Charlemagne fathers of Europe? We have emphasized the European influence of the second bishop of Tours. Charlemagne was inspired by it (especially with his capital Aachen, the appointment of Alcuin in Tours ...) and is in its continuity, to the point of sometimes being considered the "Father of Europe" for having ensured the consolidation of a notable part of Western Europe (Wikipedia map opposite, Corsica was then attached to the Byzantine Empire), and laid down principles of government that the great European states inherited.

    Alcuin, born in England around 735, died in Tours in 804 was a Latin-speaking poet, scholar and theologian. He became one of Charlemagne's chief friends and advisors, in a sense his minister of culture, directing the Palatine school at Aachen. In 796, he was 61 years old, Charlemagne appointed him abbot of St. Martin. In his study from 2004, titled "Alcuin and the Material Management of Saint-Martin of Tours," Martina Hartmann writes  "In 796, Alcuin obtained from Charlemagne the abbey of Saint-Martin of Tours  this monastery was distinguished not only because it contained the tomb of one of the most prestigious saints of the Frankish kingdom, but also because it was a particularly wealthy abbey. It is likely that by this gesture, the king wanted to reward his adviser for services rendered."

    Nikto - Kline 1987 + the two story boards "The Last Years of Alcuin" : 1 2.

    Couillard - Tanter 1986

    Alcwinus in the actual basilica

    + video Arte February 25, 2020 (7 min.) on Alcuin, the Charlemagne Tower and the Basilica of Saint Martin

    The abbey then became one of the hotbeds of the Carolingian Renaissance. His scriptorium acquired European renown, producing remarkable manuscripts of great rigor in writing, especially in calligraphy (writing minuscule caroline) and punctuation. He founded an academy of philosophy and theology in Tours which was nicknamed "the mother of the University". In 800 he raised a monastic foundation created by Ithier, his predecessor at Saint Martin's, into an abbey that would flourish, the abbey of Cormery, in a place about 20 kilometers from Tours (see below).

    The scriptorium at Tours, however, predates Alcuin's arrival by a long time. Pierre Gasnault, in an article from the 1996/1997 Martinian Conferences (SAT), writes : "Sulpice Severus reports that at Marmoutier, the followers of the bishop of Tours did not perform any artisanal work except that of copyist. [...]It is also likely that Gregory of Tours maintained copyists with him to disseminate the various books of which he was the author. None of the books copied in this way in Touraine between the fourth and sixth centuries have come down to us. One has nevertheless some very old manuscripts whose presence is attested in Tours since the Merovingian period. [...]Finally it is assured that a writing workshop functioned within the abbey from the first half of the seventh century, thus well before Alcuin who became abbot only in 796."

    Beware of pretextual pilgrimages! In the Catalogue 2016 "The Radiance of the City", Christine Bousquet-Labouérie and Bruno Judic quote a revealing warning from the Council of Chalon in Burgundy in 813  "The greatest deception comes from certain people who travel thoughtlessly to Rome or Tours and other places under the pretext of prayer. [...]There are certain powerful people who, in order to increase their fortune, obtain much wealth under the pretext of traveling to Rome or Tours." The two authors then note that this council asks the bishops to preach in the "Roman Rustic language" or in the "theotisca" (Old German) language. Is this "Rustic Roman language" the origin of the French language ? As a supplement, one can consult the study by Jean Chélini, in 1961, "Alcuin, Charlemagne and Saint-Martin of Tours".

    At Alcuin's death, one of his most prominent followers, Fridugise / Frédegis, succeeded him as abbot of St. Martin's, from 804 to 835. He also served as chancellor to Emperor Louis the Pious from 819 to 832. A scholar, he left a vast philosophical and theological work.

    Charlemagne entrusts Alcuin of York with the abbey of Tours [British Library], Alcuin teaching [BnF]. Alcuin and Charlemagne [19th century].


    "School of Alcuin in Tours"
    [LTa&m 1845]
    + 2 pages : 1 2
    + image 1920
    Alcuin and Charlemagne in History of France in Comics, text Jacques Bastian, drawing Milo Manara, Larousse 1976 + three plates : 1 2 3 + miniature of Jean Fouquet showing the pope Leon III crowning Charlemagne emperor on December 25, 800 ["Grandes chroniques de France" circa 1460, BnF, commentary "Codices illustrés" 2001]. Charlemagne made St. Martin's Day in Winter, November 11, a non-working day throughout the Western Empire.

    Alcuin presents Charlemagne with a manuscript from the scriptorium of Tours [Jean-Victor Schnetz 1830, Musée du Louvre, Wikipedia] + vitrail Lobin of the present-day basilica where Alcuin prostrates himself before Martin's tomb to stop the basilica from burning.

    "It is a noble task to copy sacred books,
    and the scribe will not miss his reward.
    It is better to write books than to plant vines :
    this one maintains his belly, this one his soul.

    At left, BmT ["History of Touraine", Pierre Audin, Geste Editions 2016]. Top center, Alcuin's poem for the abbey of Saint-Martin de Tours. Bottom center, Alcuin and his disciple Rabanus Maurus / Raban Maur (also below left) [André Thevet 1584, link Gallica]. We have seen above that it was Raban Maur who led Fulda Abbey to reproduce in miniatures the central decoration of the Perpet basilica. At right a scribe, Amiens Cathedral [page "Scriptorium"from the Universal Encyclopedia website]

    Vivien, who died in 851, count of Tours, commander of the troops of Neustria between Seine and Loire, was lay abbot of Saint-Martin from 844, also lay abbot of Marmoutier. The scriptorium at Tours was then at the height of its art, and the Bible that Vivien had made, apparently on his own initiative, and offered around 845 to the king Charles the Bald became a masterpiece of the genre, known as the first Bible of Charles the Bald or Vivien's Bible. It appears as a codex of large format (495 × 345 mm) with 423 parchment folios. In addition to the complete Latin Bible, written in caroline minuscule on two columns, it features eight full-page illuminations (here the one dedicated to Saint Jerome, the Latin translator of the Bible, and above in the center the dedication of the manuscript), four reredos, and eighty-seven illuminated lettering. + The work in its entirety, 860 pages, 242 MB [Gallica]. + Long article from Le Républicain Lorrain (2017, begin) on a 1989 transfer of the Bible to Metz. Made a little earlier, around 835, the Moutier-Grandval Bible is also renowned, including the plank telling of the life of Adam and Eve and the plank of the exodus.

    On the left, a miniature from a Roman manuscript of about 840 shows Alcuin, in the background, introducing his student Raban Maur, already seen above, to Martin, who lived four centuries earlier, in a allegory of the succession of disciple-to-master relationships [flickr Peter] + variant. In the center, the first bible of Charles the Bald, made in Tours, was given by Vivien to the king of the Franks around 845. Three monks present the manuscript, wrapped in a cloth. On the right close-up of Vivien offering the book (P.-S.) +  two plates drawn from this work : 1 (life of Saint Jerome) 2 (Adam and Eve).

    "Under the reigns of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, the writing of deeds by the recipient was exceptional. This was, however, the case for some of the diplomas of Louis the Pious for Saint-Martin. Very close personal relationships existed then between this establishment and the imperial chancellery." [study "St. Martin of Tours and the Carolingian Chancelleries" by Mark Mersiowsky, 2004]

    A little later, around 850, Vivien delivered to the emperor Lothaire I the work he had commissioned, which also became famous : the Evangelium of Lothaire. The miniatures are by the same artist as the Vivien Bible, called "Master C". The book is written in caroline minuscule with incipits written in gold, silver, and red, framed or on a purple band. The beginnings of the gospels and prefaces are in oncials gold. + The work in full, 460 pages, 91 MB [Gallica], with this portrait of Lothaire. "This is the perfect era, ornamentation reaches its peak" [article "The scriptorium of Tours" by Felix Peeters commenting on a study by Léopold Delisle].

    The Vikings' plundering from 853 will give a stop to this golden age. The scriptorium will nevertheless continue its activity in a weakened way. In her book "la Touraine, des origines à nos jours" (1982), Suzanne Périnet extends its impact very far : "This school was innovative in the realization of manuscript ornaments. It is necessary to underline the birth of this Touraine tradition that will still give masterpieces in the fifteenth century with the books of hours of Jean Fouquet." + two illustrated Touraine manuscripts of the sharing of the mantle (link, BmT) : 1 [Marmoutier Breviary, 13th century] 2 [Breviary of St. Martin of Tours, XIVth].

  28. Luitgarde and Judith, empresses buried in the basilica

    Carolus Magnus in the present basilica [Lobin workshop]. In the center, a rendering of the Basilica of Tours in Carolingian times in Kenneth Conant's book "Chilperic I" (link). + two pages from Nhuan DoDuc's site featuring stained glass windows of Charlemagne : 1 2.

    Extract from the teaching kit "Martin of Tours, the Radiance of the City" (2016) presenting "The School of Tours in the Carolingian Period", explaining for example what a codex is. But you shouldn't confuse a comic book with a succession of captioned scenes, with no continuity of action... + file educational + quiz educational.

    No sovereign was buried in the basilica of Perpet, but two sovereigns were, Luitgarde of Alémanie and Judith of Bavaria.

    Before marrying Luitgarde of Alemania, Charlemagne had had four wives. The most famous was the third, Hidegarde of Vintzgau, married at 13 in 771, died in childbirth at 25 in 783, after giving birth to 9 children, 3 of whom did not live. Only one of her sons survived Charlemagne and succeeded him, Louis I the Pious, whose second and last wife was Judith of Bavaria. [Charles and Hildegard, Baroque fresco in the ceremonial rooms of the Residence of the Prince-Abbots of Kempten / Campidonia in Swabia, link]

    Luitgarde of Alemania (or Liutgarde) was 18 years old when she married Charlemagne, probably 52 years old, in 794. Alcuin, who became abbot of St. Martin's in 796, wrote  "The queen, loves to converse with learned and learned men  after her devotional exercises, this is her dearest pastime. She is full of complacency for the king, pious, blameless and worthy of all the love of such a husband. She is at court honored even by the children of Charlemagne." She also likes to hunt with her husband in the forests of Ardennes. Both are passing through Tours when Luitgarde suddenly falls ill and dies quickly on June 4, 800, greatly missed by the king, who will be emperor of the West at the end of the same year, his family and his court. She was 24 years old and would have become empress if... + article romanticizing Luitgarde's passage through Tours [Mag. Touraine #68 of 1998].

    Luitgarde. 1) 19th century engraving. 2) figure by Gustave Vertunni, between 1938 and 1946. 3) 20th century illustration 4) wax statue of the former historial of Touraine circa 1990, next to Charlemagne and Alcuin in the decor of the Basilica/Collegiale Saint Martin 5) Case Couillard - Tanter, 1986 + two plates on "The Carolingians and Touraine" : 1 2.

    On the same day that Luitgarde died, Charlemagne signed a diploma for the monastery of Celle Saint-Paul de Cormery to be suffragan of the abbey of Tours. Charlemagne had Alcuin ask Benoit of Aniane for 22 of his monks to establish the new rule of St. Benedict there. After the death of Luitgarde, Charlemagne will not remarry. In this, we can consider that Luitgarde remained for him his empress... The exact location of the burial, in the northern arm of the transept of the basilica, has never been identified, it could be under the future Charlemagne Tower, which should be called Luitgarde Tower, built about two centuries after the death of the sovereign. We will return to this tower, half collapsed in 1928 and rebuilt from 1962 to 1964.

    814, Louis I succeeded his father Charlemagne. Born in Chasseneuil du Poitou, the son of Charles I the Great and Hildegarde, Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine at age 3. He plays a role in the government of the kingdom and takes part in military expeditions from the age of 12. At 22, in 800, he is in Tours with his father (+ miniature of Fulda Abbey in 826 representing him as a young man). At the age of 36, in 814, his older brothers having died, he succeeded his father in 814, as king of the Franks.He became Louis I the Pious, crowned emperor of the West two years later. On the left, Louis and his father, illumination from the Grandes Chroniques de France, 14th century [BnF].On the right the same when Charles designates him as his successor, 19th-century engraving (link).

    In June 2019, the specialized site, presents this denier combining the names Carolus and Martinus, an exceptional coin for discerning collectors (link).
    Also available is this page from the numista site dealing with a denarius of Saint Martin circa 1150-1200.

    The right to coin money Eugene Giraudet ("History of the city of Tours" 1873) : "Our chronicles report in the year 931 the arrival within our walls of King Raoul who came to give thanks to Saint Martin for his victories over the Normans. During this stay, having been received as a canon of Saint Martin, he confirmed to his new colleagues the right to mint coins, a right they already possessed since the successors of Clovis. The city of Tours had at that time coins of two kinds ; 1° the deniers of the city  ; 2° the deniers of Saint Martin, both equally marked "Turonis" ; after the death of Charles the Simple, the inhabitants of Tours used exclusively the coin of Saint Martin. Thereafter, this currency designated as "tournois" underwent various modifications, in its value and in its types."

    Judith of Bavaria (793-843) became empress in 819 when she married with pomp and circumstance at Aachen Louis I the Pious, also known as the debonair, son of Charlemagne, who had become emperor of the West five years earlier and had been widowed a year earlier. He had chosen his wife after gathering the most beautiful women of his court. The chosen one, 24 years old, is also ambitious...

    She is introduced as follows on her Wikipedia page : "chosen on the one hand for her beauty, described as exceptional, as well as her musical talents, but also for the geographical and political advantages offered by an alliance with this emerging yet already powerful family. She received the monastery of San Salvatore near Brescia as a dowry. Her husband was 41 years old and had three sons from his first marriage who were the same age as their young mother-in-law. Two children were born, Gisele, between 819 and 822, and Charles, in 823. A much-loved ruler at first, adored by the poets Raban Maur and Walafrid Strabon, Judith exerted a strong influence on Louis's politics. As the young wife of an old emperor, however, she increasingly abandoned herself to a frivolous, even licentious, life while the three sons from the emperor's first marriage wondered warily what future their father had in store for their half-brother." She obtained for her mother the abbey of Chelles, for her brother Rodolphe, the abbey of Saint-Riquier and the abbey of Jumièges and for his brother Conrad, the abbey of St. Gall, these are very prestigious establishments.

    Judith, the beautiful ambitious. Center Louis and Judith "Genealogy of Charlemagne" in "The Nuremberg Chronicles" by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1510). Right anonymous author circa 1510 [center and right Wikipedia illustrations]. + two other representations : 1 2.

    There follows a turbulent life, she is even exiled for a few months in a convent. Louis the Pious is deposed by the sons of his first marriage, one of them, Lothaire succeeds him, then Louis returns to power, Judith too. He died in 840, Judith three years later, on April 19, 843, at the age of 50, of tuberculosis, after having retired to Tours, learning of the future Treaty of Verdun. This four-way division of the empire, finalized and signed in August 843, made his son Charles II Bald, king of West Francia and divided the Carolingian empire permanently. Judith is buried in the Basilica of Saint Martin of Tours and soon after, as we have seen, the abbot se Saint Martin Vivien offers his son Charles a superb bible made by the scriptorium of Tours, created by Alcuin from the time of Luitgarde.

    843, the Treaty of Verdun. The signing of the birth certificate of France according to the will of Judith of Bavaria [History of France in Comics, Larousse 1979, text Jean Ollivier, drawing Eduardo Coelho] + two other illustrations : 1 2.

    Judith mother of France? Judith's role appears essential in the history of France if we consider that it was not born with Clovis but with Charles II the Bald. Indeed, as Jean Boutier indicates, in a article in "Libération" in 2011, the kingdom of Clovis quickly transformed into sub-kingdoms before disappearing when Charlemagne reshuffled the cards with a vast empire  the kingdom of Charles the Bald, on the other hand, never really disappeared and, under changing configurations, held on to what became France. However, Judith had a determining role in the creation of the kingdom of her only son Charles. While the division of Charlemagne's empire was to be carried out between the sons of Louis the Pious's first bed, Judith did everything she could to destroy this agreement ("ordinatio") until she obtained a share for Charles from her husband. In this, Judith can be considered the progenitor of France. Under the patronage of her favorite saint, Martin... who was also that of Clotilde. One would think that Martin, sanctified, would have some continuity in his ideas?

    Judith long hated by her stepsons and their children. Published in 1999, the third book in the series "I Svein, Hasting's companion," by writer Eriamel and cartoonist Jean-Marie Woehrel, is titled "Pepin II of Aquitaine". Upon the death of his father Pepin I of Aquitaine, Pepin II was recognized as king of Aquitaine by his uncles but not by his grandfather Louis the Pious, who granted Aquitaine to Judith's son. This solid reconstruction shows to what extent Charles the Bald had to fight to realize his mother's project. + :the three plates of the story of Pepin II : 1 2 3.

    Charles II, King of Francia. Two portraits of Charles II the Bald (843-877), son of Judith and Louis I the Pious, first ruler of a kingdom that would become France [Wikipedia illustrations]. Left, illumination from the "Psautier of Charles the Bald" from before 869 (BnF) Right, illumination from the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeran, ca. 870 (Munich Library). + four images of Charles II : 1 2 3 4 (link).

    Charles II the Bald, grandson of Charles I known as Charlemagne, was officially king of West Francia from 846 to 877, king of Aquitaine from 875 to 877 and emperor of the West from 875 to 877. Eugène Giraudet (History of the city of Tours" 1873) :"In 862, Charles the Bald reappeared again in Tours ; he exempted the basilica of Saint Martin and its possessions, from the rights levied by the officers of the crown ; He had the monastery of Saint Médard, which contained the remains of the first bishops of Tours, raised and surrounded by walls. "You will be looked upon," wrote the pope Adrian II, as the founder of Tours, and the recognition should make this city named, in the future, Carlodunum and no longer Caesarodunum." Louis II, known as the stutterer, succeeded his father Charles II as king of the Franks from 877 to 879. The kingdom was then ruled briefly (3 years) by his two sons Louis III and Carloman II, then the latter alone. Then his son Charles III, known as the Fat Man, from 885 to 887, last of the Carolingians, then the Robertians, Capetians...

    In retrospect, one may wonder about the parallel destiny of Luitgarde and Judith, young wives of rather old rulers, who already had adult children. If, contrary to what happened, Luitgarde had lived a long time and Judith had died young, would not the veneration of Charlemagne's children towards their mother-in-law and the detestation of Louis' first children towards their mother-in-law have been interchangeable? Moreover, doesn't the strange and sudden death of Luitgarde resemble a poisoning? To whom would the crime benefit, if not to the sons of Charlemagne who no longer had to fear the birth of a competitor ?

  29. The Vikings, the ramparts of Chateauneuf and Foulques Nerra

    Destructions and reconstructions of the Perpet Basilica.
    Circa 471(possibly November 11, 471) Inauguration of the basilica by Bishop Perpet.
    In 558 A fire destroys the roof, which is restored by King Clotaire ; Bishop Gregory then restores the murals. [or 560?]
    In 630 Saint Eloi thanks to the assistance of King Dagobert decorates the tomb of Saint Martin, his ancient sarcophagus, and that of Saint Brice with sumptuous works of goldsmithery.
    Circa 800 New fire, which Alcuin miraculously stops ; some debris of stone carvings may fall under restoration work.
    In 853(November 8) The Normans looted and burned the basilica  it was repaired soon after, but summarily  "it appeared inferior to that of ancient times".
    In 903(or 904) Last incursion of the Normans, the basilica is restored "with much work and at great expense  its appearance was much brighter than the previous one".
    In 994(994 or 997 for some) A formidable fire "destroys the basilica as well as 22 churches in the neighborhood". A total reconstruction is required.
    (summary of pages 4 and 5 of the 1984 SAT exhibition catalog, titled "Successive Basilicas of Saint-Martin in Tours")

    Martinian influence. In their book, Canons Bataille, the first chaplain of the Basilica of Saint-Martin of Tours, and Vaucelle, director of the Saint-Maurice Institute, write  "The pilgrimage to Tours was often united with that of Marmoutier. One visited the places sanctified by the life of the blessed  one drew water from the well that he had dug with his hands. We also went to Candes, where the wooden bed on which he died was preserved. In the midst of this anonymous crowd, so eager around the tomb of St. Martin, stand out some more illustrious figures of holy bishops, holy monks, pious women. Saint Genevieve is the first of these. We see Saint Germain of Paris at the Martinian solemnities  also come to Tours, Saint Bertrand, bishop of Le Mans, Saint Laurian, bishop of Seville, Saint Doriat, bishop of Orleans. Among these pious pilgrims, we must recall characters who established monasteries and remained the object of a special cult in Touraine : saint Venant, saint Senoch, saint Monégonde, saint Maure, saint Epain her son and the latter's brothers." Dagobert, who reigned from 629 to 639, for his part, commissioned a precious shrine from St. Eloi with his own money.

    St. Martin's Chapter and Old Tours. The basilica of Saint Martin of Tours was primitively managed by a monastery. It became in the middle of the ninth century a collegiate church embracing, like the abbey of Marmoutier, the rule of Saint Benoit. The monks became canons grouped into a highly hierarchical chapter with up to 200 members. Reading a table (compiled by Hélène Noizet, link) comparing the lifestyles of canons and monks, it is obvious that there is a departure from the rules advocated by Martin. The chapter will take on a political role and manage the Martinopole, reducing the role of the archbishop. Hélène Noizet, in her book "La fabrique de la ville, Espace et sociétés à Tours (IXème-XIIIème siècle)" (OpenEditions Books 2019, link) believes that this shift from monastic to canonical life structured what is now called the historic center or the "old Tours," which is that of Châteauneuf and not that of the cathedral (excerpt).

    1869 engraving showing the drakkars of a Viking expedition.

    The terrible Viking raids. Charles Lelong in his 2000 book : "The Normans dealt a very harsh blow to the cult of Saint Martin. On November 8, 853, the basilica was burned with all its surroundings as well as Marmoutier where 126 monks were massacred. Martin's body was taken to Cormery for safekeeping and was returned to his tomb the following summer. It is not known what happened during the raids of 856, 862, 865. In 877, the presence of the body is reported in Chablis [near Auxerre], from where it is brought back on December 13, 877. "Then it is the construction of the ramparts of Châteauneuf to protect the tomb and the relics. But in June 903, the Normans invest Châteauneuf, the basilica and 28 other religious buildings are in flames, the whole town and the suburbs are devastated, only the ancient city resists. It was then that, according to the bishop of Utrecht, the relics were carried in procession on the ramparts. They invigorate the defenders who make the Norman attackers flee, whose last incursion it was.

    1) In 853: the gates of the basilica were broken down by the Normans [Histoire de France en bd, Ollivier - Coelho, Larousse 1976] + two plates : 1 2. 2) In 877 : the precious châsse containing the relics of Saint Martin, which had left for Auxerre, was brought back in procession to Tours [La Chapelle Blanche Saint Martin Church, Lobin workshop + video] 3) In 903, the shrine on the ramparts causes the Normans to flee (same scene below left, LTh&m 1855).
    Martin's relics 3/8: they escape the Vikings and perform miracles ! At least three miracles : 1) when they are in Auxerre in 877, they cure a leper in a very strange way : story by Robert Ranjard in 1934 + miniature showing the miracle ["The Life and Miracles of Monsignor St. Martin translated from Latin into French" 1496] + engraving in LTa&m 1845. 2) on their way back from Auxerre (pictured above in the middle), they heal two paralyzed beggars: story by Henri Guerlin in Mag. Touraine HS November 2002 + vitrail from the Church of Saint Martin de Nouans les Fontaines in Touraine showing the miracle [Lobin workshop, Verriere 2018] + almost the same vitrail from the same workshop in the actual basilica. + page from the Semur 2015 (877, with the role of the Count of Anjou Ingelger in the return) 3) they galvanize the defenders on the ramparts of the City of Tours in 903 (illustrations above right and below left) : account in page of the Semur 2015 + article with the memorial stele restored in 2013 ["Tours News" 2013]. Starts in Relics 1/8, 2/8, sequels in 4/8, 5/8, 6/8, 7/8, 8/8.

    Vestige of a chapel in Châteauneuf ["Tours cité meurtrie", Jeannine Labussière, Elisabeth Prat, CLD 1991]

    The monks of Marmoutier seeing the Normans coming, Jean-Paul Laurens 1882 [Musée d'Orsay in Paris, "La légende de Saint Martin au XIXème siècle" 1997].

    Evolution of the Martini / Martinopole / Châteauneuf urbs in 600, 850, 918 [Ta&m 2007 page 366] + study of the walls of
    Châteauneuf by C. Lelong (1970).
    [LTh&m 1855] + article by Elisabeth Lorans "The enclosure of the castrum of St. Martin : a research object for the future", Ta&m 2007.
    Birth of the borough of Saint Martin le Beau in 904 (same root as bellicose) [Couillard - Tanter 1986]

    How the Vikings and the Abbey of Saint Martin enabled the accession to power of the Capetians. Pierre Gasnault in a article from 1961 titled "The Tomb of Saint Martin and the Norman Invasions in History and Legend" concludes by drawing two consequences from the Norman sacking of St. Martin's Abbey. The first, as we have seen, is the creation of the enclosure surrounding what would become "Châteauneuf." "The other consequence of the Norman invasions is more general in scope and touches closely on the history of our country. In 866, at one of the most critical moments of the Norman invasions, King Charles the Bald had given the abbey of Saint-Martin de Tours to Count Robert the Strong, who had just made a name for himself by inflicting a crushing defeat on the Normans of the Loire. But this donation did not produce the immediate effects desired by the king, for Robert le Fort perished a few months later at Brissarthe during a new encounter. The abbey of Saint-Martin was then awarded to Hugues the Abbot, who was to keep this important benefit for twenty years. A few months after his death on May 12, 886, Charles the Fat restored it to Count Eudes, one of the sons of Robert le Fort, and henceforth and for more than nine centuries the title of abbot of Saint-Martin was to be borne by the descendants of Robert le Fort. Count Eudes, in fact, at the time of girding the royal crown in February 888, after the deposition of Charles the Fat, ceded the abbey of Saint-Martin to his brother Robert I. Robert, who in turn became king in 922, but died in 923, was succeeded as abbot of Saint-Martin by his son Hugues the Great, and then his grandson Hugh Capet. When this one had been crowned king on July 1, 987, he kept this dignity which was henceforth united to the royal person. Thus, from Hugues Capet to Louis XVI all the kings who succeeded to the throne of France were at the same time abbots of Saint-Martin de Tours." + the oath taken by fifteen kings, from Louis VII to Louis XIV, when they received this title [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996] + page commented on by Michèle Prévost of the evangeliary on which this oath was taken [Catalog 2016]. This book is considered the treasure of the Tours municipal library, according to a article in "Tours Informations" from February 1987.

    866, the death of Robert le Fort, Frankish nobleman, count of Tours and Anjou, count of Poitou, lay abbot of Marmoutier and Saint Martin de Tours, marquis of Neustria, great-grandfather of Hugues Capet, at the battle of Brissarthe against the Vikings and Bretons (link). Previously the city of Le Mans had been sacked. Then Charles the Bald recognized King Salomon as independent of Brittany, but the Danes of King Hasting ravaged Bourges in 867, Orleans in 868, and Angers in 872. On the right, in 881, at the battle of Saucourt en Vimeu, Carolingian troops prevail over the Vikings [Jean-Joseph Dassy, Château de Versailles]. The Viking threat began to wane, failing in 904 in its final assault on Tours, 50 years after the dreadful first raid of 853.

    The hereditary title of lay abbot of Saint Martin. In 898, Robert, Count of Paris, became lay abbot of the abbey of Saint Martin following his father Robert the Strong. He was elected king of the Franks in 922, under the name of Robert I, first of the Robertians. This title of abbot was then passed down from father to son among the kings of the Franks and then kings of France, first the Robertians, then the Captians, from Hugues Capet (grandson of Robert I) to Louis XVI.

    Couillard - Tanter 1986 + two plates on the passage of the Vikings in and around Tours : 1 2 + article by Christian Theureau "La place de la monnaie de Tours" [Ta&m 2007] + article by Guillaume Sarah and Philippe Schiesser on the Merovingian denarii (circa 700) from Tours (2013).

    Evolution of the city of Tours 3/7: Martin's town, Martinopole, became the castle and then Châteauneuf. The evolution was slow, from the 5th to the 11th century. Next to the city / civitas of the ancient Caesarodunum was born a second city, around the basilica, commonly called the vicus, sometimes Martinopolis / the city of Martin / the Martinopole. Between 903 and 908, to protect itself from the Vikings, a enclosure fortified is built, the vicus then becomes the castrum, the castle. During the 10th century, thick stone walls gradually replace ditches, earthen embankments and palisades. From the eleventh century on, the town enclosed by this new enclosure was called castrum novum, the new castle of Saint Martin [Pierre Leveel in Level 1994]. Châteauneuf would live for almost four centuries. Around the collegiate church, on about 6 hectares, open spaces allowed the inhabitants of the suburbs to find refuge during alerts. Hélène Noizet has studied the designation of the town of Martin more closely from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries, in a article "From castrum sancti Martini to Châteauneuf [Ta&m 2007].

    A two-headed city : above left circa 800 above then circa 1050 below [Ta&m 2007], right late 11th century (with Romanesque basilica, Archbishop's stream below) [Cossu-Delaunay 2020]. + circa 950 [Ta&m 2007] + circa 1150 ["Feudalities", Belin 2010] + article by Hélène Noizet "Parishes and fiefs, tools of control" [Ta&m 2007] + four articles by Henri Galinié [Ta&m 2007 : 1 ("The notion of territory in Tours, in the ninth and tenth centuries" (1981)) 2 ("The urban space around 800") 3 (circa 950) 4 (circa 1050). + map of the "churches located in the monasterium Sancti Martini in 854" ["The Making of the City" Hélène Noizet 2007]. In addition, in the book "La fabrique de la ville" by Hélène Noizet 2007, one can consult the page titled "The king and the lords at Saint-Martin (950-1100)" dealing in particular with relations with the counts of Blois and Anjou, which will be discussed in the following chapter. Evolving beginnings 1/7 and 2/7, sequels in 4/7, 5/7, 6/7 and 7/7.

    Remparts of Tours 2/5: the Châteauneuf enclosure, its towers and tower houses. As just written, it is to protect the Martinopole from the Normans that this enclosure was built around 905, in addition to the Gallic enclosure of the city, still maintained. All that remains of the Châteauneuf ramparts in the open air is the above tower remnant (rue Baleschoux) (+ remodeled, a tower rue Néricault Destouches, Oury - Pons 1977). + plan of the present remains ["Tours cité meurtrie", C.L.D. 1991]. On the right, engraving by Edouard Gatian de Clérambault (1912) representing, inside the enclosure, the Foubert tower-house (late 12th century), given in 1323 by Charles IV to the Saint Martin abbey, destroyed in 1958, + photo in an 1899 book "Tours pittoresque" + engraving by Oury - Pons 1977] + photo of a partially preserved tower house on Rue de la Paix [comment Elisabeth Lorans and Emeline Marot, Catalogue 2016] + article by Pierre Garrigou-Grandchamp discussing tower houses and domestic architecture at Châteauneuf [Ta&m 2007]. Starting in Ramparts 1/5, continuing in 3/5 4/5 and 5/5.

    Decline of the abbey then revival at the end of the millennium. Charles Lelong emphasizes the "negative consequences" of the Norman invasions  "the hindrance brought to the pilgrimage, the rupture of the geographical unity, the damage caused to the basilica, finally the impoverishment of the collegiate church." The Treaty of Verdun in 843 signaled the collapse of Carolingian unity and the beginning of a major decline. Norman incursions and terrible famines (868, 873, 875, 892) worsen the material situation of the populations. Many small monasteries disappeared. Guy-Marie Oury in "Religious History of Touraine" (1962) : "However, the structures held together. [...]The first signs of religious revival appeared around the year 940  they were still timid and slow and at first affected only monastic circles, but St. Martin and his school maintained a certain cultural level, of which the literary work of St. Odon [Odon of Cluny, trained at St. Martin's, where he returned to die in 942]is indisputable proof."

    Sanctus Odo / Odon, first canon of St. Martin and archicantor (first canon), then second abbot of Cluny, first abbot of St. Julian of Tours, in the present basilica, also with his portrait painted (+ image early 20th century). + plank from the comic strip Kings, Monks, and Peasants, script by Florian Mazel, drawing by Vincent Sorel, [The Comic Book Review 2019, link].
    Was Odon originally from Touraine?. From Anselme de Sainte-Marie ["Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des maréchaux de France", vol. VII, Paris (repr. 3rd, 1733), "Histoire de la Maison de Maillé," p. 498], Odon is the brother-in-law of Hardouin I de Maillé, which is repeated in many documents, e.g., the Wikipedia page of Gilbert de Maillé, son of Hardouin I, archbishop of Tours from 1118 to 1125 (he is presented as the son of "Béatrix, sister of Odon of Tours"). His proximity to the counts of Anjou and his early years spent in Tours were in this direction. However, this is grossly false since Odon died in 942 and Hardouin I was lord of Maillé (former name of Luynes, in Touraine) around 1084-1096. According to Wikipedia, Odon was from a Frankish noble family, most likely Aquitanian, son of Abbon, "a high-ranking personality of exceptional legal culture" and Ava.
    The monk John and/or the anonymous one of Marmoutier. The "anonymous monk of Marmoutier" was a disciple of Odon who wrote several works for the Cluny library, dealing in particular with Saint Martin. For this same library, the life of Odon was written by the "monk John", another disciple, who usually traveled with him. It says that Odo had made remarks on the Life of St. Martin by Sulpice Severus; but this work has not come down to us. These two monks are often considered as the same person. Whether on Amboise or on Loches, their writings appear questionable. [links : 1 2 3 4]

    Charles Lelong, in 2000, also notes this revival : "Leon VII, in 938, writes "that no other place, with the exception of St. Peter's in Rome, attracts such a large number of supplicants from such diverse and distant countries." And Odon of Cluny: "the whole world teaches them (the people of Touraine) what they should do with such a treasure. All the nations surround him with a particular love, to such an extent that nowadays, when piety cools down, we see multitudes of people flocking around him whose language we do not even know. It is of Martin that we can well say: "All the world desires to see his face. How much does the eagerness of these foreigners not accuse us, his neighbors, of inertia? [...] Finally, various foundations attest to the permanence of its prestige : Saint Martin la Bataille, by William the Conqueror, after his victory at Hastings in 1066 (and the abbey was populated with monks from Marmoutier), Saint Martin du Canigou in 1001, the abbey of Martinsberg by King Stephen, Saint Martin de Liège (title adopted around the year one thousand by Bishop Notger)... In the menologe of Basil II, the Nulgaroctone, before the year one thousand, St. Martin appears among the saints of the Greek church : he is depicted resurrecting a dead man with the legend : Martinou episkopou Fraggias (= bishop of France)."

    In "Religious History of Touraine", Guy Devailly takes stock of the situation a little before the demolition of the basilica of Perpet : "Towards the end of the tenth century, once the gust of the Norman invasions had passed, the memory of St. Martin remained as in previous centuries, at the center of religious life in the diocese of Tours. The basilica built on his tomb is still the goal of numerous and fervent pilgrimages. The fire of 994 may have been started by the terrible Foulques Nerra (970-1040), according to Stanislas Bellanger, in his book LTa&m 1845  "Chased from Tours by Eudes, Foulques Nerra returned there on July 25, 994, set fire to the town of Châteauneuf, and the church of Saint-Martin was again a victim of the disaster." In a double page of his book "La basilique Saint-Martin de Tours" (1986), Charles Lelong shows that in the last fifty years of the millennium, the basilica has had more or less luxurious appearances, between disasters and costly restoration".

    Foulques Nerra ravages the basilica. In 990, the terrible Foulques Nerra seized the city of Tours and committed an outrage in the basilica... Driven out by Eudes, Count of Blois, he returned in 994, setting fire to the town of Châteauneuf and to the basilica of Perpet, which did not recover and was replaced by that of the treasurer Hervé de Buzençay [Guignolet 1984] + the plank.. + on Fulk the Black, his seal and the illustrated cover of a 2009 book.

    Foulques Nerra, from Jerusalem to Loches. After committing atrocities in and around Touraine, Foulques would go to Jerusalem to do penance and return refreshed. He did this three times, in 1003-1005, 1009-1011 and 1036-1039. The last episode was the most memorable, as these illustrations show. On the left, he is being flogged (link) (another link about his life). On the right, on all fours, he is tearing (would tear...), with his own teeth, a marble shard from Christ's tomb. This relic, which disappeared during the Revolution, was the glory of the abbey of Beaulieu lès Loches, next to Loches [detail of a stained glass window on the transfiguration of Christ in the abbey church of Beaulieu lès Loches, Lobin workshop].


  30. From Martin's cloak to the Capetians, from Romanesque to Gothic

    The Counts of Blois and Anjou fought over Touraine. Count dynasties impose themselves at the turn of the millennium. Far more than the king of France, the counts and dukes are masters in their territories. Tours is the capital of the county of Touraine which will be bitterly contested between the blèsoise house and the anjou house. After several reversals, it was not until 1044 and the battle of Nouy / Saint Martin le Beau (illustrated commentary, link) that the county of Tours would become for a long time a fiefdom of the county of Anjou, until its attachment to the royal domain under Philip Augustus. We are then in the middle of the Medieval Age. The population increases sharply thanks to technical innovations, society reorganizes itself according to the systems of the seigniory, with peasants in communities cultivating the land on behalf of the nobles. The feudality takes hold, with the knights serving their suzerain. Martin is then considered an exemplary knig